The Truth About the ‘Special Food Needs’ of Small Breeds

The Truth About the ‘Special Food Needs’ of Small Breeds

By Dr. Karen Becker comments by Diane Weinmann

Those of you with small dogs may have noticed that the pet food marketplace is exploding with diets created for the so-called “special needs” of small breeds. Clearly, the processed pet food industry has found another cash cow: dog food formulas marketed to owners of small breeds.

According to the PetfoodIndustry.com, “… as smaller dogs appealing to both millennial and baby boomer lifestyles increase in popularity, the pet food industry is taking note.”1

According to the article, millennials (now the largest demographic of pet owners) aren’t moving as quickly toward home ownership as previous generations, instead choosing to remain in apartments or condos as city dwellers. Baby boomers are becoming empty nesters, downsizing to smaller living spaces, and doing more traveling.

Neither of these lifestyles is conducive to owning a large dog (or so the theory goes), but since both groups still want to be pet parents, small dogs are the solution.

“Small dogs, which are more portable, more likely to meet apartment weight limits,” writes the author of the article, “and can in some cases even be trained to be completely indoor animals, with litter or puppy pads ensuring they don’t need to go down an elevator or several flights of stairs to find relief in the nearest patch of grass.”

As an important point of clarification, no dog should be a “completely indoor animal.” Walks outdoors, visits with friends and family with yards, adventures to the dog park, and other pet-friendly outings are essential in keeping dogs of all sizes and ages exercised, socialized, mentally stimulated, and grounded to the earth.

Big Pet Food Wants Us to Believe Small Dogs Need Special Diets Simply Because They’re Small

The processed pet food manufacturers would like to convince you that small dogs have unique health issues and nutritional requirements that only they can meet. This is a red flag for me, because processed pet food isn’t the answer for the health issues faced by small dogs (or any size dog), and it’s certainly not the answer to small dogs’ (or any dog’s) nutritional needs.

Processed pet food producers want to position small dogs as so different from “real” dogs that they need specialized diets. In fact, one “global director — nutrition and technical communications” for a pet food company goes so far as to say, “They’re not carnivores.” Actually, yes, they are. All dogs are.

Canines are scavenging carnivores, and need to be, in order to maintain health. Making dogs omnivores or vegetarians creates metabolic disease; however, it’s the stance the pet food industry must take to sell the biologically inappropriate products they produce.

If Big Pet Food’s pitch is successful, it opens up limitless opportunities to expand their product lines and develop marketing plans to sell diets specifically for small breed dogs. Now, these diets will be, for all intents and purposes, identical to diets for every other size dog — it’s really only the marketing, packaging and kibble size that will be different.

And you can bet there won’t be any independent (or even company-sponsored) pet food research substantiating the claim that toy and small breeds have a totally different set of nutritional requirements than other sized dogs. There also won’t be any long-term studies determining the safety or efficacy of feeding these fast-food diets for the lifetime of a pet.

From what I’ve been able to tell comparing formulas for small dogs and regular formulas, the differences are primarily in package sizes, product names and the way they’re marketed, and in some cases, kibble size.

Obviously, repackaging standard formulas and giving them cute names like “Wee Bits” and “Mighty Minis” does nothing to address the supposed “unique health issues and nutritional needs” of small dogs as advertised by pet food companies, but they don’t expect dog owners to connect the dots.

So that’s Big Pet Food’s play for the hearts and minds of small dog parents. Hopefully all of you reading here today won’t be fooled.

Your Dog’s Size Shouldn’t Dictate His Diet

In an ideal world, processed pet food manufacturers would put their significant resources toward getting the basics of canine (and feline) nutrition right and focus less on finding ways to re-engineer existing poor-quality formulas to expand their product lines.

Dry pet food with little or no high-quality animal protein and minimal moisture, but plenty of grains, carbs, starches, allergenic ingredients, non-nutritional fillers, synthetic amino acids, vitamins and minerals, additives and preservatives, is not species-appropriate nutrition for any dog, regardless of size. The fact is, when comparing a Great Dane to a Yorkie, they are all canine, specifically Canis lupus familiaris.

What is becoming apparent, through new canine DNA studies, is that a dog’s evolutionary lineage can play into expressed behavior traits and may dictate dietary preferences. For instance, dogs that evolved from northern parts of the world (Akitas, Huskies, Malamutes, etc.) may crave a diet higher in fish (or omega 3 fatty acids), which was a part of their evolutionary nutrition many moons ago.  Diane’s husky, Neko, loves all fish in his food.

In theory, customizing macronutrients and ingredients to a dog’s genetic lineage may prove to quite beneficial, but this isn’t what Big Pet Food is doing with their “breed specific” diets.

Sadly, humans have chosen to breed certain types of dogs down to sizes so small their organs often don’t function normally. And the AKC and other kennel clubs still condone (and paper) inbred animals. Since nature doesn’t design dogs to be that small, health problems are to be expected, including congenital organ problems which may require owners to feed a lower protein diet.

But assuming all small breeds require low protein diets is misguided. Certainly size, energy output and health problems are a consideration when determining any animal’s nutritional requirements, but a dog is still a dog — a carnivorous canine.

Those of you who have been readers for years know how I feel about this topic: unless breeders complete every possible genetic test for both parents and intentionally breed for “reparative conformation” (so the next litter may carry fewer genetic predispositions), they shouldn’t be breeding, and smaller isn’t better.

That being said, there are some small dogs who are born with poorly functioning livers or kidneys and must be on customized diets their whole lives: this is a result of bad breeding, not an evolutionary adaptation from being small.

Tips for Feeding Small Dogs

It’s very easy to overfeed and under-exercise any dog, and especially a small one, so it’s important to start out on the right foot and stay there.

Currently, AAFCO doesn’t link feeding instructions on dog food packaging to a dog’s energy requirements, so according to the bag or can, a super active 10-pound dog and a super lazy 10-pound dog should eat the same amount. Common sense says this can’t be true.

  1. Ignore pet food advertisements that suggest healthy small dogs need special diets.
  2. Calculate how much food your dog needs each day, then scale that amount up or down, depending on activity level.
  3. Feed an optimally balanced, species-appropriate, fresh food diet to your little one. Regardless of her size, your dog needs the right nutrition for her species, which means real food that is made from healthful ingredients (not feed-grade, rendered, slaughter house waste), high in human-grade animal protein and moisture, with low or no grain content or starches/carbohydrates.
  4. Practice portion control — typically a morning and evening meal, carefully measured. A high protein, low carb diet with the right number of calories, controlled through the portions you feed, will help your small dog remain at a healthy weight. And don’t forget to factor in any calories from treats.
  5. Use small training treats — Tiny dogs need only tiny training treats. Otherwise, you’ll have a not-so-tiny dog in no time. Anything more than, say, a treat the size of a quarter of a pea, is too big. You can buy or make treats to break into very small pieces; you can also use your dog’s regular food as treats.
  6. Regularly exercise your dog — Daily exercise, including at least 20 minutes of consistent aerobic activity, will help your pet burn fat and increase muscle tone.
  7. Evaluate your dog monthly — If she is losing weight, adjust calories. If she is gaining weight, adjust calories.
  8. Small and toy breeds are prone to dental disease because 42 teeth in one tiny mouth leads to crowding, and crowded teeth get dirtier faster. A raw diet and recreational raw bones or nontoxic dental chews will help keep plaque and tartar under control, but small breeds also need to have their teeth brushed daily, as well as routine veterinary dental exams.

The key to keeping your small dog healthy has nothing to do with offering “wee” or “mini” sizes of biologically inappropriate pet food. Help your little one stay at a healthy weight and nutritionally fit with a high animal protein, moisture rich diet fed in controlled portions, and augmented with plenty of physical activity.

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Updated List of Best-to-Worst Types of Pet Food

By Dr. Becker and Diane Weinmanngood-dog-food-2620000

Feeding your pet is a major portion of your job as a pet parent. You obsess and worry if you are feeding the right food, heck, you are inundated with commercials on the TV of which food is best for your pet.  How do you chose?  Here is some information that can help in the decision making process.

Processed Diets Can Also Contain Carcinogens

Not only are processed pet foods biologically inappropriate, they also contain added synthetic vitamins and minerals to meet basic nutritional requirements. The food is heated to very high temperatures, which at best denatures proteins and decreases nutrient value. At worst, it introduces carcinogens into your pet’s body on a daily basis.

Two potent cancer-causing substances are created when dry pet food is made by the extrusion process. When protein is extruded, carcinogenic heterocyclic amines are created. The byproducts of extruded starches are acrylamides. Both are known to cause cancer in dogs and cats. This is quite disturbing when you consider the fact that most pets across the globe are eating dry food their entire lives, and the cancer rate is skyrocketing in companion animals.

Feeding dogs and cats inappropriate ingredients for several generations has created significant metabolic and physiologic stress. Convenience pet foods are the root cause of the inflammatory processes and degenerative diseases that plague today’s dogs and cats. A biologically correct diet for a carnivore is high in moisture, high in protein, moderate in fat, and low in carbohydrates. The vast majority of pet foods on the market today are the opposite – low in moisture content, with low to moderate amounts of poor quality protein and fat, and high in starches or carbs.

Feed Your Pet the Best Diet You Can Reasonably Afford

The goal in feeding your pet a diet she can truly thrive on is to mimic the ancestral diet of dogs and cats as closely as possible without breaking the bank.

Now, I know some of you might be thinking “Gee, I would like to feed myself an all-organic, free range, non-genetically modified, and fresh food diet… but I just can’t afford to.” I certainly understand, and my basic recommendation is to feed yourself and your pet as much unprocessed, fresh food as you can afford.

I have clients who can’t afford to feed an all-fresh, living, and raw food diet, so they offer fresh food snacks instead. Research shows that offering some healthy foods is better than offering no healthy food at all.

I also have clients who can afford to feed their pet maybe 2 to 4 fresh food meals out of 14 in a week. Others do a 50/50 split, meaning one meal a day is a processed pet food, and the other is a fresh food meal.

I recommend taking baby steps toward providing the best diet you can afford for your dog or cat.

 dogs and cats eating

  1. Nutritionally balanced raw homemade diet. This is the best diet you can feed your dog or cat. It’s very important not to wing it when preparing your pet’s meals at home. I say this because when pet food nutrition expert Steve Brown and I analyzed many of the homemade and prey model diets available, we learned they fall far short in trace minerals, antioxidants including nutrients like manganese, magnesium, vitamin E and D, copper, zinc, iron, choline, and essential fatty acids.

Additionally, if the diet doesn’t have a proper fat or calcium to phosphorus balance, it can actually cause a myriad of health problems, especially in growing animals. So, it’s critically important that you know your homemade diet is balanced.

The great thing about homemade raw diets is you get to handpick the ingredients. You know the quality of the meat you’re using. And if your dog is allergic to chicken, for example, you simply pick a different protein source. Another benefit is you can wash the veggies to your own satisfaction to remove any pesticide residue.

Making your own pet food can provide peace of mind because it’s becoming increasingly more difficult to find ethical pet food companies that use locally sourced or even US-grown ingredients. With homemade food, you’re in complete control of every ingredient that enters your pet’s body.

And of course, raw food is just that. It’s raw and unadulterated. It contains all of the enzymes and phytonutrients that are typically destroyed during food processing.

Homemade food also gives you the flexibility to include a lot of nutritional variety in your pet’s diet. You can buy seasonal fruits and veggies on sale. You can use produce that comes from your local supermarket, your local farmer’s market, or even from your own garden.

  1. Nutritionally balanced cooked homemade diet. This option gives you all of the benefits of the homemade raw diet above, minus the benefits of the free enzymes and phytonutrients found in living foods. Interestingly, there are a few nutrients that are actually more bioavailable when cooked, for example, lycopene.

Reasons to cook your pet’s meals include the fact that some animals prefer cooked over raw food, or warm food over chilled food. Also, some pet owners simply prefer to cook the food. And then, there are some medical conditions such as recent GI surgery or pancreatitis for which cooked food is just a better idea.

 

  1. Commercially available balanced raw food diet. Again, it’s critically important that the diet be balanced. There are a lot of raw diets on the market these days that are nutritionally incomplete. These foods should say right on the label, “For supplemental or intermittent feeding.” I don’t recommend feeding unbalanced foods without adding in the missing nutrients, or your pet can have nutrition-related medical problems in the future.

Commercially available balanced raw food diets are found in the freezer section of small or privately owned pet boutiques. Some big-box stores are now starting to carry a larger selection of frozen raw diets, and you can also find an excellent selection online.

There are new raw diets coming on the market every month and vegetable, bone, and fat content vary widely between products. For example, diets range from 0 to 40 percent in vegetable content. This can impact the amount of synthetic vitamins and minerals that must be added to the diet to make it nutritionally complete. In addition, vegetable content impacts digestive and stool health. So if, for example, you have a dog who suffers from chronic constipation, you may want to choose a food with higher veggie content.

Commercially available raw food diets also range from low fat to high fat. If you have an obese cat, you would want to select a low-fat diet, but if you have a highly active dog on the lean side who loses weight quickly, it would make sense to choose a higher fat food.

Ground bone, bone meal, or a bone meal equivalent is typically added to raw diets for mineral balance. Some raw foods contain bone pieces that are actually too big to be safely cooked, so if you choose a raw diet and want to cook it, make sure it’s safe to do so.

When it comes to ingredient sourcing, some raw food companies pride themselves on using only healthy, grass-fed animals and organic veggies. Others use animal meats and produce imported from China or other countries, as well as factory-farmed and GMO-fed animals raised in feedlots here in the US.

Some use whole foods to meet trace mineral requirements, while others use very few ingredients and rely on vitamin and mineral pre-mixes to meet their nutritional requirements.

Another factor to consider is how the raw food is formulated. Meat-based foods like raw diets are almost always calorically dense. They should be formulated on a caloric basis and not on a dry matter basis. This is a more demanding method of formulating. Comparing the formulation on a dry matter basis to caloric basis shows that raw foods formulated on a dry matter basis actually fall significantly short of nutrients.

You know a raw diet is formulated on a caloric basis when the nutrients are listed as a gram or milligram of nutrient per 1,000 kilocalories. Diets formulated on a dry matter basis will have nutrients listed as a percentage of dry matter. I only recommend choosing raw foods that are formulated on a caloric basis.

How companies manage potentially pathogenic bacteria is another consideration, and ranges from manufacturers who do nothing, to those who batch test, use UV treatments, ozone, fermentation, or HPP (high pressure pasteurization).

Fortunately, this sector of the pet food industry is the fastest growing category, which means you should be able to find a food that fits your ethical and financial parameters, with the added convenience of not having to make the food yourself. The downside is the cost – you’re paying for the luxury of having someone else do the work for you. As with all pet food manufacturers, you’ll need to investigate the company you’re buying from to make sure you’re feeding the correct product for your pet’s specific nutritional and medical goals.

  1. Dehydrated or freeze-dried raw diet. If you can’t or don’t want to feed fresh raw food, a good alternative is a dehydrated freeze-dried raw diet that is reconstituted with water. These diets are shelf-stable so they’re very convenient. To make them biologically appropriate, all you have to do is add water.

Dehydrated or freeze-dried raw diets haven’t been processed at high temperatures. In many cases, the nutrient value has been retained minus a balanced fatty acid profile.

Keep in mind that there is a difference between fresh and dehydrated or freeze-dried raw food. Dehydrated and freeze-dried foods by definition are not the same as fresh raw diets, but they can be a great choice for people on the move, people who go camping with their dog or cat, and for pets that go to day care or need to be boarded. It’s really the next best thing to a fresh raw food diet. Make sure the brand you select is nutritionally balanced for all life stages.

  1. Commercially available cooked or refrigerated food. This is a new category of pet food that is exploding in the marketplace. These diets have been gently heat-processed so the proteins are slightly denatured, but the moisture content is excellent. The food is fresher than processed diets, so the nutrient content is better than choices lower on this list. You’ll find these foods in the refrigerated section of pet stores, and in many human grocery stores as well.

The quality of raw materials in refrigerated pet food ranges from absolutely terrible to excellent, so you do need to do some research before choosing which brand to buy.

  1. Human-grade canned food. If the package label or the manufacturer’s website doesn’t say the ingredients are human grade, you should assume they are not. Pet food made with human grade ingredients is a great deal more expensive than feed-grade or animal-grade canned food. These foods will typically be found in boutiques and small independent retailers that focus on high-quality foods.
  2. Super premium canned food. These products are typically found at big-box stores like Petco and PetSmart, or a conventional veterinary clinic. These diets contain feed-grade ingredients (which mean foods not approved for human consumption). But, the moisture content is much more biologically correct than dry food. Many have excellent protein, fat, fiber, and carb ratios.
  3. Human-grade dry food. Dry food is not biologically appropriate for dogs or cats in terms of moisture content when compared to the ancestral diet. Additionally, even grain-free dry foods contain unnecessary starch that can cause inflammation issues in your pet.

Human-grade is very important because the ingredients have passed quality inspection, which means they don’t contain poor quality or rendered unidentified proteins. If the food has been baked, it will clearly say so on the label. Otherwise, you should assume it has been extruded, which means you are probably feeding a small amount of carcinogens to your pet with every meal.

 

  1. Super premium dry food. These diets are found at big-box stores and conventional veterinary clinics. These extruded dry foods are made with feed-grade ingredients not approved for human consumption but are typically naturally preserved. Most of these foods contain added grains or starches, which are not species-appropriate and may harbor mycotoxins.

 

  1. Grocery store brand canned food. These foods rank below super premium dry foods because even though the moisture content is more biologically appropriate, they usually contain high levels of unnecessary grains and synthetic toxic preservatives such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and ethoxyquin.

 

  1. Grocery store brand dry food. These diets have all the same issues as grocery store brand canned food, and also do not contain adequate moisture.
  2. Semi-moist pouched food. This stuff is really bad. The reason it is so far down the list is because in order to make the food semi-moist, the manufacturers must add an ingredient called propylene glycol. Propylene glycol is an undesirable preservative that is closely related to ethylene glycol, which is antifreeze. While propylene glycol is approved for use in pet foods, it’s unhealthy for dogs and cats to consume.

 

  1. Unbalanced homemade diet, raw or cooked. Dead last on the list for good reason is an unbalanced homemade diet. Some pet owners believe they can offer their dog or cat a chicken breast and some veggies, and call it a day. Many caring pet owners are unfortunately sorely lacking in knowledge about their companion animal’s nutritional requirements.

 

Feeding fresh homemade food is a good thing, however, if the diet you’re offering your pet is nutritionally unbalanced, it can cause significant irreversible and even potentially fatal health problems. These include endocrine abnormalities, skeletal issues, and organ degeneration as a result of deficiencies in calcium, trace minerals, and essential fatty acids.

Almost every veterinarian has seen patients that have been harmed by well-meaning owners who feed unbalanced diets. It’s heartbreaking and entirely preventable. Homemade pet diets must be done right or not at all. When in doubt please consult your vet before starting a homemade diet for your pet. Going homemade is a huge decision and obviously you’ll want to do what’s best for your pet so don’t do it alone get information from reliable proven sources. Don’t forget the old saying, “you are what you eat”…I must be ice cream!

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Ingredients to avoid in Dog Food

By Dr. Becker and Diane Weinmann hungry-dog-5434576

If you’re like most pet owners, you’ve probably given a lot of thought to the type of food you feed your animal companion. Even I, Diane, being certified in canine nutrition does not know everything about the chemicals that go into your pet’s processed food!

It seems recalls of commercial pet foods are happening on a weekly basis these days, so it’s no wonder so many dog and cat guardians are concerned that the food they buy for their furry family members could make them sick. No one wants to feel like they’ve poisoned their pet even if it was inadvertently. After all, many pet food-associated illnesses (i.e., any disease or disorder linked to or caused by pet food) can be life-threatening.

When pet food triggers a sudden illness in a dog or cat, it often involves either infection from a bacterial contaminant, or toxicosis. According to Dr. Becker, two frequent offenders are aflatoxins and salmonella.

Aflatoxins

Aflatoxin contamination was responsible for a number of regional pet food recalls in 2011, as well as several major disease outbreaks over the past 20 years.1

Aflatoxins are noxious metabolites produced by the Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus fungi, and are the most extensively researched mycotoxins in the world.

Aflatoxins are known to cause acute toxic illness and cancer in animals and humans, and are considered among the most carcinogenic substances on the planet. Cats and dogs are more sensitive to aflatoxins than many other animals.

Aflatoxins can infect agricultural crops before they are harvested. Conditions that promote contamination include high temperatures, prolonged periods of drought, and insect activity.

Aflatoxins can also be a problem after harvesting if the crop stays wet for too long. They can grow on stored crops, as well, if the moisture level is too high and mold develops.

The three plants with the highest rate of aflatoxin contamination are corn, peanuts and cottonseed. Other frequently contaminated agricultural products include:

  • Maize, sorghum, pearl millet, rice, and wheat cereals
  • Peanut, soybean, and sunflower oilseeds
  • Chili peppers, black pepper, coriander, turmeric, and ginger spices
  • Almonds, pistachios, walnuts, coconuts, and brazil nutsAflatoxins in Pet FoodA 2016 survey of premium and super premium pet food in Brazil highlights the ongoing, serious problem of mycotoxin contamination:The survey looked at 14 commercially available premium and super premium dry dog and cat food samples purchased from pet shops in Brazil. Almost 100 tests were run to check for the presence of mycotoxins frequently found in agricultural crops intended for pet food production.
  • The test results were stunning:
  • “Based on the results of this survey, it is the belief that pet food which contains grain should not be considered safe for cats and dogs in Brazil. Grains and grain by-products such as maize, maize gluten meal, wheat, soya, etc. are the most important sources of mycotoxins in pet food.”2
  • In the U.S., aflatoxin contamination is more common in processed dog food than cat food because commercial dog food formulas more often contain corn products.
  • Processed foods containing corn can also carry a risk of aflatoxin adulteration. Infected corn and cottonseed meal fed to dairy cows has resulted in aflatoxin contamination of milk and other dairy products including cheese and yogurt.
  • 93 percent of the pet food samples were contaminated with the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1)
  • 85 percent were contaminated with fumonisin B2 (FB2)
  • 43 percent contained the mycotoxin ZEN
  • 22 percent contained aflatoxin B1If you feed kibble to your pet (which I only recommend if you cannot afford to feed better quality food), be sure to study the ingredient list carefully and avoid brands containing grains or corn in any form, including corn gluten meal, whole grain corn, corn flour, etc. Additionally, the ingredient carrageenan can be found in many variety of wet cat/dog food is a known carcinogenic.The disease caused by aflatoxins is called aflatoxicosis, and in animals it primarily involves the liver. Clinical signs of a problem with the liver include gastrointestinal dysfunction, reproductive issues, anemia and jaundice.
  • Certain types of aflatoxins are associated with the development of cancer in animals. If your pet becomes ill from food contaminated with aflatoxins, you’ll see one or more of these symptoms:

Signs of Aflatoxicosis in Pets

  • Many inexpensive, low quality pet foods rely heavily on all these ingredients. Many treats also contain these ingredients, including organic “cookies” (made from organic whole wheat or rice), which are an under-represented potential source of toxicosis, in my opinion.
  • Along with the increased risk of aflatoxin contamination, corn is a notoriously allergenic food that is difficult for many animals to digest. Also avoid formulas containing cereal grains like maize, sorghum, pearl millet, rice and wheat. Rice can also contain toxic levels of arsenic.
  • Most of the mycotoxins found in the samples were at concentrations considered “medium.”
  • Severe, persistent vomiting combined with bloody diarrhea
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fever and sluggishness
  • Discolored urine
  • Jaundice (yellow whites of the eyes, gums, belly)Bring your pet’s food with you if possible, for testing. You should also consult your holistic veterinarian for recommendations on natural liver detox agents like NAC, glutathione, milk thistle, SAMe and chlorophyll. Salmonella contamination is the leading cause of pet food (and human food) recalls. And despite what many in the conventional veterinary community would have you believe, the vast majority of recalls are for processed pet food diets, not raw diets. The most important thing to understand about salmonella contamination of pet food is that the risk of illness is primarily to human family members, not the four-legged kind. Dogs and cats are built to handle bacterial loads from food that would cause significant illness in humans. Your pet’s body is well equipped to deal with heavy doses of familiar and strange bacteria because he evolved to catch, kill and consume prey. Your pet’s stomach is highly acidic, with a pH range of 1 to 2.5. Nothing much can survive that acidic environment. It exists so that dogs and cats can consume potentially contaminated raw meat and other foods.Risk factors for clinical disease include the age of the pet, his nutritional status, the presence of cancer or another concurrent disease, his stress level, and whether he’s been given antibiotics, steroids, or chemotherapy.

Keeping Your Pet Safe from a Salmonella Infection

    • In addition to the acid, dogs and cats also naturally produce a tremendous amount of bile. Bile is both anti-parasitic and anti-pathogenic. So if something potentially harmful isn’t entirely neutralized by stomach acid, the bile is a secondary defense. Now, that’s not to say no dog or cat has ever become ill from salmonella. However, healthy pets typically do not.
    • That’s because dogs and cats naturally have some salmonella in their GI tracts much of the time. Salmonella is not an unknown foreign invader — it’s bacteria your pet’s body is familiar with. The most common strain found in dogs and cats is salmonella typhimurium

Salmonella

    • If you suspect your pet has ingested aflatoxins (if your pet becomes ill after switching to a new food or grain-based treat), even if he seems normal, get him to your veterinarian or an emergency animal clinic right away, since the mortality rate is high once a pet is showing symptoms.
  • Feed a balance, fresh, whole, and species-appropriate diet that is free of genetically modified ingredients.
  • If you feed raw, freeze the meat or meat mixture in individual serving-size packets for at least 3 days before serving. Defrost in the refrigerator overnight.
  • Use safe food handling techniques. Clean and sterilize all utensils, bowls, surfaces and equipment after each use.
  • Discard any uneaten fresh food after 30 minutes.
  • Minimize the drugs your pet takes, including vaccines.
  • Reseed the gut during and after antibiotic therapy with a probiotic. It’s also a good idea to maintain your dog or cat on a daily probiotic to balance the ratio of good to bad bacteria (gut flora).
  • Help your pet’s body get the most out of the food you feed by offering a good-quality digestive enzyme.

Safe Handling of Processed Pet Food

  • Wash your hands thoroughly after handling any pet food or treats.
  • Don’t allow very young children, elderly people or those who are immunocompromised to handle pet food or treats.
  • Keep all pet foods and treats away from your family’s food.
  • Do not prepare pet foods in the same area or with the same equipment/utensils you use to prepare human foods.
  • Wash pet food bowls after each meal.
  • Do not allow pets on countertops or other areas where human food is prepared.
  • Feeding pets in the kitchen can be a source of salmonella infection. Feed your pet in an area other than your kitchen, or as far away from human food preparation areas as possible

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