3 Remedies for Upset Stomach in Dogs

Katherine Smith, DVM, CVA, CVSMT

 

 When you have an upset stomach, you probably reach for ginger ale or crackers to settle your tummy. But what should you do when your dog’s stomach is out of sorts?

Here’s some information about the causes and symptoms of upset stomach in dogs and tips for how to make your pup feel better with natural remedies. 

Common Causes of Upset Stomach in Dogs

There are many reasons your dog may have an upset stomach, though there’s one common cause: they ate something they shouldn’t have, says Kathy Backus, DVM, at Holistic Veterinary Services in Kaysville, Utah.

“Dogs are curious like kids; they’re always putting things in their mouth,” she says. “Vomiting and diarrhea are signs that a dog’s body is trying to expel something that shouldn’t be in their system. In a healthy dog, it’s a protective mechanism of the body that’s totally normal.”

These are a few (of many) things that can trigger an upset stomach in dogs:

  • Ingesting something that they shouldn’t
  • Bacterial imbalances within the digestive tract
  • Chronic conditions such as food sensitivities

Symptoms of Upset Stomach in Dogs

The most common signs of upset stomach in dogs are diarrhea and vomiting. If your dog is nauseous, you may also see him eat grass to soothe his stomach or try to induce vomiting, says Jody Bearman, DVM at Anshen Veterinary Acupuncture, Madison, Wisconsin.

Watch for other signs of upset stomach in dogs, such as:

  • Decreased appetite or loss of appetite
  • Fatigue
  • Drinking less water
  • Seeming depressed
  • Looking uncomfortable and stretching more often (like they are attempting a downward dog)
  • Gulping to combat reflux
  • Licking their lips, the air, or objects

When to Call Your Vet

Monitor your pup’s symptoms. If your dog is consistently uncomfortable, or if the signs worsen at any point, call your veterinarian.

Watch for these signs:

  • Increasing discomfort
  • Vomiting or having an episode of diarrhea more than twice
  • Blood in their vomit or stool
  • Toy or other foreign object in their vomit or stool
  • Weakness or collapse

These can all be signs of something more serious, including pancreatitis, stomach bloating, a severe allergic reaction, or internal parasites.

If you realize that your dog has eaten something he shouldn’t have—a plant, food, toy, or chemical—you should seek immediate veterinary care.

If your primary veterinarian is unavailable, call your local emergency veterinary hospital. They will be able to advise whether your pet needs to be seen or whether you can continue to monitor him at home.

You can also call the ASPCA Animal Poison Control hotline at 888-426-4435 for a fee. They can also determine a poison’s level of toxicity and recommended care for your dog.

3 Remedies for Upset Stomach in Dogs

It is crucial to consult with your veterinarian before administering any home remedies to soothe your pup’s tummy troubles. If your veterinarian recommends at-home monitoring, these are a few ideas you can ask them about trying while you are at home with your dog.

Fasting

When your dog’s stomach is trying to get rid of something, it can be helpful to stop putting more things in their stomach for 12-24 hours, Dr. Backus says. “If the gastrointestinal (GI) system is having a tough time, you don’t want it to digest things.” 

Fasting may seem simple enough, but it’s important to speak with your veterinarian first because some dogs (particularly small breeds or those with prior health conditions) cannot tolerate fasting as well as others.

If your veterinarian does recommend fasting, ask whether they would like you to start a bland diet (and what they recommend) after the fasting period is complete.

Ice Cubes

When your dog is vomiting or has diarrhea, you want them to stay hydrated, but giving him too much water may make his stomach even more upset, Dr. Backus says.

Monitoring your dog’s water intake and discouraging gulping is important. Offer your dog ice chips to help encourage drinking.

If your dog can keep down small quantities of water or ice chips, you can gradually increase the amount and how often you are offering the water and ice.

Canned Pumpkin

When fighting indigestion and upset stomach in dogs, 100% canned pumpkin is a favorite of many holistic veterinarians.

“It has a low glycemic index, so it slowly absorbs, which helps with upset stomach and digestion,” Dr. Bearman says.

Make sure to get 100% canned pumpkin, not pumpkin pie mix, as you don’t want to feed your dog spices and other ingredients, she says. Check that there are no ingredients listed other than pumpkin (such as sugar or sugar substitutes).

According to Dr. Bearman, smaller dogs (approximately 5 pounds) can be fed one-half teaspoon of canned pumpkin, while larger dogs (approximately 75 pounds) can be fed 1 tablespoon.

Is Upset Stomach in Dogs a Sign of Food Allergies?

An upset stomach every once in a while can be normal in a dog, but if it happens often, it could signal that something is wrong in their GI tract, says Randy Aronson, DVM, of P.A.W.S. Veterinary Center in Tucson, Arizona.

If digestive upset is a frequent occurrence for your dog, discuss the possibility of a food allergy with your veterinarian. When food allergies are diagnosed in dogs, it is often an allergy to a protein source, which is why a more “novel” protein (one that your dog has never eaten) may be recommended.

There are many options on the market, but examples may include beef, buffalo, venison, or lamb.

How to Help Prevent Upset Stomach in Dogs

To help your dog maintain a healthy gut, consider giving them a prebiotic and probiotic, Dr. Aronson says. There are both prebiotics and probiotics that are made specifically for dogs, some of which are available over the counter. Be sure to ask your veterinarian if they have a particular brand recommendation.

Always talk to your veterinarian first to find out the best course of action.

Got Dog? They go back to the Ice Age!!!!

Stunning Evidence Suggests Dogs Lived During the Ice Age

by Dr. Karen Becker

 

 

While it’s known that dogs descended from wolves to become humans’ best friends, when — and exactly how — this occurred remains a great mystery and highly debated topic. Genetic data confirms that dogs are descendants of Eurasion grey wolves, and early humans and wolves were known to share resources and territories dating back hundreds of thousands of years.

Skeletal changes suggestive of dog domestication have been discovered dating back to the Aurignacian period some 43,000 to 26,000 years ago, and by 16,000 to 12,000 BP (before present), domestic dogs were known to exist in Western Europe, Asia and North America, with purposeful burials of dogs also occurring at this time.

Still, researchers wrote in the Journal of Archaeological Science, “The beginning of this domestication process … remains a point of debate, with purported originations ranging from 15,000 to over 40,000 BP.”1

Understanding when this process occurred isn’t only a matter of satisfying curiosity — animal domestication signals a shift in humans’ relationship with nature and changes in human cognition and behavior. Uncovering when this first occurred will help researchers to also understand early Homo sapiens.

Researchers from the University of Arkansas may be one step closer to figuring out the mystery, after an analysis of Paleolithic-era teeth showed evidence of two groups of canids — “one dog-like and the other wolf-like”2 — existing at that time.

Dental Differences Suggest Dogs Emerged During Ice Age

The study involved fossils from a 28,500-year-old site known as Predmostí in the Czech Republic. A dental microwear texture analysis was performed on the ancient teeth, which identified distinctive microwear patterns on the differing canids. The dog-like canids, which the researchers called “protodogs,” had larger wear scars that suggest they ate more hard, brittle foods such as bones.

The wolf-like canids, on the other hand, had smaller scars, which could indicate they ate more flesh-based food, such as mammoth flesh. Peter Ungar, distinguished professor of anthropology at the University of Arkansas, explained in a news release:

“Our primary goal was to test whether these two morphotypes expressed notable differences in behavior, based on wear patterns … Dental microwear is a behavioral signal that can appear generations before morphological changes are established in a population, and it shows great promise in using the archaeological record to distinguish protodogs from wolves.”3

While the fossil site is believed to contain fossils from wolf-like and dog-like canids, the dental differences provide supporting evidence that the animals had distinct diets. The wolf-like canids likely feasted on flesh caught by hunting while the dog-like canids may have eaten more bones and other food scraps that came from a human settlement.

“Dental microwear is a behavioral signal that may appear generations before morphological changes are established in a population. It shows promise for distinguishing protodogs from wolves in the Pleistocene and domesticated dogs from wolves elsewhere in the archaeological record,” researchers wrote in the Journal of Archaeological Science.4

Paleolithic Dog Skulls Revealed

In 2012, researchers analyzing skull material from the same fossil site in the Czech Republic came to the conclusion that both dog and wolf skulls exist there.5

Three complete skulls were identified as belonging to ancient dogs, which were characterized by short skulls and snouts and wide palates and braincases compared to wolves. The ancient dogs had skulls shaped similar to that of a modern-day Siberian husky, but larger in size and heavier.

Three other skulls could not be identified, with researchers suggesting they could be from hybrids or captive wolves. Further, they noted that the skull and canine remains were modified by humans, which suggests a relationship existed between humans and large canids at the time.

For instance, one of the dogs had a mammoth bone in his mouth, which was believed to have been placed there after death. “The mammoth bone in the dog’s mouth could signify “that the dog was ‘fed’ to accompany the soul of the dead (animal) on its journey,” according to lead study author Mietje Germonpré.

Their conclusions, however, particularly the supposed presence of two distinct canid populations at the fossil site, were met with debate. The featured study, with its detailed dental analysis, adds further support that ancient dogs may have existed alongside wolves during the Ice Age. The researchers even made suggestions as to their respective diets:

“Isotope analysis suggests wolves and humans focused on mammoth, while dogs and lions focused on reindeer and other prey. Protodogs fed scraps would have been better able to break and consume the bones of reindeer and smaller prey compared to mammoths, and this may help explain the signal.

Alternatively, protodogs may have opportunistically scavenged off felid kills, as felids typically leave more flesh as well as marrow containing bones than do canids or hyaenids.”6

Still, even with this combined evidence, it’s possible that the two canid groups were actually different wolf populations that had developed different dietary behaviors due to increased competition or environmental changes. Further research will be necessary before the ongoing debate will be ended revealing when dogs were first domesticated.

As for why domestication occurred, it’s believed that wolves may have become integrated into human society because canids fulfilled important functions in the daily life of Paleolithic people, helping them with hunting and other work, offering protection and, just as they do today, providing a source of faithful companionship.

 

Lyme Disease in Dogs: Symptoms and Treatment

Reviewed and updated on April 14, 2020 by Rania Gollakner, DVM as seen in PetMD

Lyme disease in dogs is one of the most common tick-transmitted diseases in the world, but it only causes symptoms in 5-10% of affected dogs. So some dogs may have it, but never show symptoms.

Transmission of Lyme disease has been reported in dogs throughout the United States and Europe, but it’s most prevalent in the upper Midwestern states, the Atlantic seaboard and the Pacific coastal states.

However, the disease is spreading and becoming more common throughout the United States. Here’s some info about the causes and prevention of Lyme disease, as well as the symptoms you should look for and treatment options.

Symptoms of Lyme Disease in Dogs

Here are some common and less common symptoms and complications of Lyme disease in dogs.

Most Common Symptoms

When infection leads to Lyme disease in dogs, the dominant symptoms are:

  • Recurrent lameness due to inflammation of the joints
  • Fever1
  • General feeling of malaise

Many dogs who develop Lyme disease have periodic lameness because their joints are inflamed. Sometimes the lameness lasts for only 3-4 days but recurs days to weeks later, either in the same leg or other legs.

This is known as “shifting-leg lameness.” One or more joints may be swollen, warm, and painful.

Other Symptoms

In some cases, Lyme disease can also cause:  

  • Depression
  • Enlarged lymph nodes1
  • Lack of appetite
  • Stiff walk with an arched back
  • Sensitivity to touch
  • Difficulty breathing

Kidney Damage Caused by Lyme Disease

More serious complications, although uncommon, include:

  • Damage to the kidneys
  • Rarely, heart or nervous system disease (although this is not well documented)1,2

Lyme disease sometimes leads to glomerulonephritis—the inflammation and accompanying dysfunction of the kidney’s glomeruli (a blood filter).

Eventually, kidney failure may set in as the dog begins to exhibit signs such as vomiting, diarrhea, lack of appetite, weight loss, increased urination and thirst, and abnormal fluid buildups that can appear as swollen limbs.

How Lyme Disease Is Transmitted

Lyme disease is caused by a spirochete (bacteria) of the Borrelia burgdorferi species. 

Borrelia burgdorferi is transmitted by slow-feeding, hard-shelled deer ticks (Ixodes spp.).

Infection typically occurs after the Borrelia-carrying tick has been attached to the dog for approximately 241 – 48 hours.

Diagnosing Lyme Disease in Dogs

You will need to provide a thorough history of your dog’s health to give your veterinarian clues as to which organs are being affected.

Clinical diagnosis of Lyme disease is usually confirmed with a positive blood test for Lyme along with the clinical signs associated with Lyme disease.

It’s important to note that tests can take 4-6 weeks to show up as positive after exposure, which is why veterinarians will use a combination of diagnostics to diagnose your dog: 

  • Blood chemistry tests
  • Complete blood cell count
  • Urinalysis
  • Fecal examination
  • X-rays and tests specific to diagnosing Lyme disease (e.g., serology)
  • Fluid from the affected joints may also be drawn for analysis

Arthritis Caused by Lyme Disease

There are many causes for arthritis, and your veterinarian will focus on differentiating arthritis initiated by Lyme disease from other inflammatory arthritic disorders, such as trauma and degenerative joint disease.

Immune-mediated diseases will also be considered as a possible cause of the symptoms. X-rays of the painful joints will allow your doctor to examine the bones for abnormalities.

Treating Dog Lyme Disease

If the diagnosis is Lyme disease, your dog will be treated as an outpatient unless their condition is unstable (e.g., severe kidney disease). Doxycycline is the most common antibiotic that is prescribed for Lyme disease, but other antibiotics are also effective.  

Treatment usually takes at least 4 weeks, and longer courses may be necessary in some cases. Your veterinarian may also prescribe an anti-inflammatory if your dog is especially uncomfortable.

Unfortunately, antibiotic treatment does not always completely eliminate the infection from Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria. Symptoms may resolve but then return at a later date, and the development of kidney disease in the future is always a concern.

Administering the antibiotics properly to your dog reduces the likelihood of chronic consequences.

Improvement in sudden (acute) inflammation of the joints caused by Borrelia should be seen after 3-5 days of antibiotic treatment. If there is no improvement within 3-5 days, your veterinarian will want to reevaluate your dog.

Preventing Lyme Disease in Dogs

If possible, keep your dog away from tick-infested environments where Lyme disease is common.

Check your dog’s coat and skin daily to make sure you find any ticks hiding on your pet, and remove ticks by hand.

The most effective way to prevent Lyme disease and protect pets from other tick-borne diseases is to use flea and tick prevention.

Your veterinarian can prescribe a variety of prescription flea and tick options, including collars, topical solutions, and tablets and chews that kill and repel ticks. These products should be used under a veterinarian’s supervision and according to the label’s directions.

If you live in an area where ticks are abundant, Lyme vaccines are available. However, not all dogs are a good candidate for the vaccine. Talk to your veterinarian to see if the Lyme vaccination is right for your dog.

References:

1.        Lyme Disease. Companion Animal Parasite Council. https://capcvet.org/guidelines/lyme-disease/.

2.        Littman MP, Gerber B, Goldstein RE, Anna M, Michael L, George RL. ACVIM consensus update on Lyme borreliosis in dogs and cats. J Vet Intern Med. 2018;(January):887-903. doi:10.1111/jvim.15085

 

Estrogen’s Effect on Tumors You Really Can Help Control

 

 

By Dr. Karen Becker

It’s generally accepted as fact that female dogs spayed at a young age have a reduced risk of developing mammary tumors — the equivalent of breast cancer in humans.

However, it’s certainly worth noting that the results of a 2012 study — a systematic review conducted by veterinary researchers in the U.K. — did not validate the theory that early spaying protects female dogs from mammary neoplasia.1

Unfortunately, this study, and the questions it raises, has received very little attention, but does highlight what emerging research is now discovering: canine mammary tumors have hormone interplays potentially as complex as human mammary cancers.

New Study Raises Questions About Spaying and Mammary Cancer

Since spaying involves the removal of the ovaries, it also removes most of the body’s ability to produce estrogen. For this reason, estrogen is widely assumed to play a role in the development of canine mammary tumors. But a new study by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania’s School of Veterinary Medicine suggests the effects of estrogen on cancer risk in dogs aren’t as clear-cut as originally thought.2

Interestingly, the study found that while spaying reduces dogs’ risk of developing mammary cancer, it may increase the risk of more aggressive cancers. In addition, the researchers discovered that in spayed dogs with mammary tumors, higher serum estrogen levels were actually protective in terms of delayed metastasis and improved survival times.

“Dogs that remain intact and have their ovaries develop many more mammary tumors than dogs that were spayed, so removing that source of estrogen does have a protective effect,” says Karin U. Sorenmo, a veterinary oncologist at Penn Vet and senior author on the study, in a Penn Today news release.

“Estrogen does seem to drive mammary cancer development. But what it does for progression to metastasis — that I think is more complicated.”3

Estrogen May Play Opposing Roles in Cancer

For the study, the Penn Vet research team evaluated 159 dogs with mammary cancer, 130 who were spayed for purposes of the study, and 29 who were left intact. The researchers removed the dogs’ tumors and gathered data on serum estrogen levels, tumor type, disease grade and stage, time to metastasis, and survival time.

They discovered that despite the link between estrogen and an elevated risk of developing mammary tumors, higher estrogen levels seemed to also help prevent some of the most dangerous aspects of the cancer. From the Penn Today news release:

“Unexpectedly, when dogs were spayed at the same time their tumors were removed, those with estrogen receptor-positive tumors that had higher serum estrogen took longer to develop metastatic disease and survived longer than dogs with lower estrogen levels, confirming that these tumors depended on estrogen for progression.”

Sorenmo’s theory is that in these instances, the effect of estrogen may be nuanced. “It drives the cancer, but it also seems to control or modulate it, reining it in,” she says, because most of the dogs with high estrogen levels had lower-grade and estrogen receptor-positive tumors, which made them susceptible to hormonal deprivation by spaying.

The researchers noted that the protective effect of estrogen was also pronounced in dogs with estrogen-receptor negative mammary tumors. These are higher risk cancers, and high estrogen levels were associated with delayed metastasis, or the absence of metastasis.

Additionally, after mammary tumor surgery, dogs with low estrogen levels had a significantly increased risk for other aggressive, fatal tumors that were not mammary related, such as hemangiosarcoma.

As Sorenmo notes, some of the findings in women with breast cancer are also contradictory. For example, while higher serum estrogen levels in survivors of breast cancer are linked to higher recurrence rates, many breast cancers develop immediately following menopause, when estrogen levels plummet. So, it’s possible estrogen plays a more complex role in human cancer risk as well.

“I think this study opens some really complicated questions,” Sorenmo says. “If we start dissecting exactly what estrogen is doing, what genes or immune cells it’s interacting with, maybe we could harness the power of estrogen to be more clever in our treatment strategies.”

 

Metabolization of Estrogen Is Key in Preventing Certain Cancers

In order to address why dogs develop mammary tumors, we must identify why their immune systems failed and allowed cancer cells to proliferate. It’s also critical to evaluate the estrogen-mimicking chemical load in their environment.

Even animals no longer producing their own estrogen after being spayed or neutered can be exposed to overwhelming amounts of xenoestrogens (estrogen mimicking chemicals) in the environment. I’ve seen many patients over the years with wildly unbalanced endocrine systems, including male dogs with estrogen levels higher than what is normal for intact females.

When I find mammary tumors in a dog, I immediately measure the sex hormone levels. If estrogen is elevated in desexed animals, after removing the tumors I institute a protocol including DIM (diindolymethane) and high-lignan flax hulls, which may help to naturally reduce estrogen levels.4

DIM and flax hulls (not flaxseeds or flaxseed oil) have been shown to promote beneficial estrogen metabolism in both males and females. The body’s ability to effectively metabolize estrogen is an important component in the prevention of certain cancers, in particular breast cancer.5

Dietary adjustments, including the elimination of all estrogenic foods (e.g., soy and yams) and highly processed foods created via the extrusion process (kibble) is important because the manufacture of kibble creates carcinogenic byproducts.

Feeding a fresh, ketogenic, high-fat, no-carb (starch-free), nutritionally balanced and species-appropriate diet is also part of the protocol, along with beneficial immune-support supplements.

Thankfully there are a growing number of integrative veterinary oncologists popping up around the globe who can work with veterinary surgeons and local integrative veterinarians to customize treatment plans to achieve maximum benefits with the fewest possible side effects.

Sources of Xenoestrogens

In my opinion, exposure to xenoestrogens — chemicals that mimic the hormone estrogen —plays a significant role in elevated estrogen levels in dogs. Examples of xenoestrogens include:

Atrazine (weed killer) Heptachlor (restricted insecticide)
4-Methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) (found in sunscreen lotions) Lindane, hexachlorocyclohexane (restricted insecticide)
Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (food preservative) Methoxychlor (banned insecticide in U.S.)
Bisphenol A (used to make plastics) Nonylphenol and derivatives (laboratory detergents; pesticides)
Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDT) Pentachlorophenol (restricted biocide in U.S.; wood preservative)
Dieldrin (banned insecticide) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
DDT (banned insecticide in the U.S. but not other countries) Parabens (lotions)
Endosulfan (banned insecticide in U.S.) Phthalates (used to make plastics)
Erythrosine (FD&C Red No. 3) DEHP (found in PVC)
Ethinylestradiol (oral contraceptive) Propyl gallate (used to preserve oils and fats)

The problem with this list is that these chemicals often aren’t plainly labeled as such in many products found around the house. For instance, plug-ins, car fresheners, scented candles, room sprays and gel air fresheners are loaded with chemicals on this list, but manufacturers aren’t required to list them on product labels.

Endocrine disrupters, which damage your dog’s hormonal axis, including estrogen balance, are also found on many fabrics treated with flame-retardant chemicals (dog beds, carpets, couches, draperies).

Another endocrine disruptor is BPA, which is found in the lining of canned dog food containers and plastic food and water bowls, not to mention cleaning supplies that instruct you to call poison control if ingested. Always remember that any product used in your house has the potential to end up inside your pet.

It’s also important to keep in mind that pesticides and chemicals banned in the U.S. still show up on and in products imported from other countries.

12 Ways to Reduce Your Pet’s Exposure to Xenoestrogens

To reduce your dog’s exposure to these estrogen-mimicking compounds, and thereby potentially lower the risk of mammary cancer:

  1. Use stainless steel, glass, or ceramic food and water bowls
  2. Avoid plastic storage containers for pet food or water
  3. Don’t microwave pet food in plastic containers
  4. Don’t use nonstick cookware if you cook food for your pet
  5. Avoid using cling wrap that contains DEHA
  6. Avoid pet foods containing soy, the preservatives BHA and BHT, and the food dye FD&C Red No. #3
  7. Use natural pest control around your home and yard
  8. Use alternatives to chemical flea/tick repellents
  9. Use all-natural, nontoxic cleaning supplies inside your home
  10. Buy organic dog beds
  11. Remove fluoride and chlorine from drinking water
  12. Don’t buy canned food unless it’s labeled BPA-free

 

 

Can your Dog smell Fear?

As seen in PetMD By: Dr. Sarah Wooten

Have you ever noticed that when you are feeling fearful, your dog becomes more attentive and clingy?

Have you also noticed that your dog may behave differently around people who like dogs versus people who are afraid of dogs?

Dogs have an incredible sense of smell, but can they smell fear? And if so, how?

Is It True That Dogs Can Smell Fear?

The science is in, and the answer is a resounding YES—dogs can smell fear. Dogs have olfactory superpowers that can detect a human’s emotional state by the scent that a human emits. That’s right—you can’t hide fear from dogs. They’ve got your number!

Until recently, the idea that dogs can smell fear was only a theory, but a study called “Interspecies transmission of emotional information via chemosignals: from humans to dogs” actually proves that dogs (or at least Golden Retrievers and Labrador Retrievers) can smell human emotions and respond accordingly.

When a person gets scared, their sweat glands will start secreting moisture, especially in the armpits. This sweat contains chemical signals that dogs can pick up on.

Can Dogs Smell the Difference Between Fear and Happiness?

Researchers correctly postulated that dogs would respond differently to human odors that were emitted under different emotional states—namely, fear and happiness.

In the study, dogs were exposed to three stimuli—their owner, a stranger (the control) and an odor dispenser. Dogs were assigned to different odor conditions randomly.

They collected odors from humans in three different emotional states: fearful, happy and neutral (no sweat). The odors were collected from the armpits of random male donors who were not otherwise involved in the experiment procedures.

The dogs were then observed for responses, including behaviors directed at the three targets, stress behaviors and heart rate. Researchers found that when the dogs were exposed to “happy odors,” they interacted more with the stranger and had lower heart rates.

In contrast, when the dogs were exposed to the “fear odor,” they displayed more stress behaviors and had higher heart rates associated with the fight, flight or freeze response—a  bodily response of the autonomic nervous system that is essential for adaptation and survival.

The dogs also sought more reassurance from their owners and interacted with the stranger less than the dogs that were exposed to the “happy odor.”

Researchers concluded that chemosignals—odors that we emit in response to our emotional state—communicate across species to dogs. So, if we are scared, they can smell it and get scared, too.

What Your Dog’s Senses Can Tell You About Your Own Emotions

Dogs can help us recognize our own emotional states. Many people who have chronic anxiety may not even be aware that they are walking around in fight, flight or freeze mode.

A dog that’s in tune with how you exhibit stress or fear can help signal the onset of these emotions and help you better work through feelings of anxiety.

It’s also important to acknowledge that dogs can feed off of your energy. So, try to temper your mindset throughout tense situations—say, like at your next vet visit—to help keep your pet more at ease.

Your mental health and that of your pet are both important. If you take note of how your dog is behaving, you might learn more about your own mood and mental state than expected.

 

Atopic Dermatitis in Dogs: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

Atopic Dermatitis in Dogs: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

Reviewed and updated for accuracy on February 13, 2020 by Dr. Hanie Elfenbein, DVM, PhD

 

Dog allergies are often caused by the allergens found in pollen, animal dander, plants, and insects, but dogs can also be allergic to food and medication as well.

 

These allergies can cause symptoms such as excessive itching, scratching, and grooming; rashes; sneezing; watery eyes; paw chewing; and skin inflammation.

 

When allergies cause skin disease, the condition is called atopic dermatitis (meaning itchy skin and inflammation).

 

Here’s everything you need to know about atopic dermatitis in dogs.

 

What Is Atopic Dermatitis in Dogs?

 

Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory, chronic skin disease associated with allergies. In fact, this is the second most common allergic skin disease in dogs, after flea allergy dermatitis.

 

Causes of Dog Dermatitis

 

These allergic reactions can be brought on by normally harmless substances like grass, mold spores, house dust mites, and other environmental allergens.

 

At What Age Can Dogs Get Dermatitis?

 

Dogs normally show signs of the disease between 1-6 years of age, though atopic dermatitis can be so mild the first year that it doesn’t become noticeable or consistent for several years.

 

Symptoms of Atopic Dermatitis in Dogs

 

Symptoms associated with atopic dermatitis often get worse with time, though they may also be seasonal.

 

These are the most commonly affected areas in dogs:

 

·         Ears

·         Feet

·         Underbelly

·         Muzzle

·         Armpits

·         Groin

·         Base of the tail

·         Around the eyes

·         In between the toes

 

The symptoms associated with atopic dermatitis include:

 

·         Itching

·         Scratching

·         Rubbing

·         Licking

·         A yeasty smell

·         Greasy skin

·         Redness or tough skin

 

What Causes Atopic Dermatitis in Dogs?

 

Some breeds are more likely to develop allergies, including Golden Retrievers, Poodles (and hybrids), Shih Tzus, Cocker Spaniels, and Bulldogs. However, any dog can develop allergies.

 

While there’s no way to prevent your dog from developing allergies, there are several excellent treatment options available.

 

Can Dogs Get Tested for Allergies?

 

Prior to any treatment, your veterinarian will need a complete medical history to determine the pattern of your dog’s allergies. Some allergies are seasonal, such as mold, while others are year-round.

 

A complete physical examination is important in determining the best types of treatment. Your veterinarian will want to perform tests on skin samples from the affected areas.

 

Serologic allergy testing may be performed, which looks for antibodies in the blood, but the results are not always reliable. The quality of this kind of testing often depends on the laboratory that analyzes the results.

 

Intradermal testing may also be used to identify the cause of your pet’s allergic reaction. This is where small amounts of test allergens are injected into the skin and wheal (a red bump) response is measured.

 

Since these types of tests are very expensive, your veterinarian may recommend treatment instead of advanced allergy testing.

 

Treatment for Atopic Dermatitis in Dogs

 

The treatment will depend on what is causing your pet’s allergic reaction.

 

If the reaction is due to atopy, a genetic disposition to an allergic reaction, for example, hyposensitization therapy can be performed. Your veterinarian will give your pet injections of the allergens to which they are sensitive. This decreases itchiness in 60-80% of dogs, but may approximately take 6 months to a year to see an improvement.

 

Your veterinarian might recommend immunomodulatory medications. These are available either as a daily pill (Apoquel) or an injection given every 4-10 weeks (Cytopoint). Along with these, antibiotics or antifungal medicines are often required to treat the skin infections that result from allergies.

 

Additionally, regular bathing with medicated or prescription-strength shampoo can greatly improve your pet’s comfort and help skin infections resolve faster. Shampoo and other topical treatments can also be used as maintenance therapy to reduce the risk or severity of future skin infections.

 

Does Atopic Dermatitis Go Away?

 

Unfortunately, atopic dermatitis only rarely goes into remission or spontaneously resolves.

 

Once treatment has begun, your veterinarian must see your dog every 2-8 weeks to ascertain the effectiveness of the treatment and to check for drug interactions.

 

Then, as your pet’s itching becomes more controlled, they will need to be brought into the veterinarian’s office every 3-12 months for checkups. 

 

It’s very important to stay vigilant and make sure your dog gets treatment at the first sign of an itch.

 

If left untreated, allergies can change a dog’s personality—the constant itch and frustration can lead dogs to shy away from people or be aggressive when touched.

 

This is especially true for dogs with ear infections as part of their allergy symptoms. Chronic ear infections can also lead to deafness.

 

If your veterinarian should find the trigger for your pet’s allergies, he or she will advise you as to how to best avoid those type of allergens. 

The Truth About the ‘Special Food Needs’ of Small Breeds

The Truth About the ‘Special Food Needs’ of Small Breeds

By Dr. Karen Becker comments by Diane Weinmann

Those of you with small dogs may have noticed that the pet food marketplace is exploding with diets created for the so-called “special needs” of small breeds. Clearly, the processed pet food industry has found another cash cow: dog food formulas marketed to owners of small breeds.

According to the PetfoodIndustry.com, “… as smaller dogs appealing to both millennial and baby boomer lifestyles increase in popularity, the pet food industry is taking note.”1

According to the article, millennials (now the largest demographic of pet owners) aren’t moving as quickly toward home ownership as previous generations, instead choosing to remain in apartments or condos as city dwellers. Baby boomers are becoming empty nesters, downsizing to smaller living spaces, and doing more traveling.

Neither of these lifestyles is conducive to owning a large dog (or so the theory goes), but since both groups still want to be pet parents, small dogs are the solution.

“Small dogs, which are more portable, more likely to meet apartment weight limits,” writes the author of the article, “and can in some cases even be trained to be completely indoor animals, with litter or puppy pads ensuring they don’t need to go down an elevator or several flights of stairs to find relief in the nearest patch of grass.”

As an important point of clarification, no dog should be a “completely indoor animal.” Walks outdoors, visits with friends and family with yards, adventures to the dog park, and other pet-friendly outings are essential in keeping dogs of all sizes and ages exercised, socialized, mentally stimulated, and grounded to the earth.

Big Pet Food Wants Us to Believe Small Dogs Need Special Diets Simply Because They’re Small

The processed pet food manufacturers would like to convince you that small dogs have unique health issues and nutritional requirements that only they can meet. This is a red flag for me, because processed pet food isn’t the answer for the health issues faced by small dogs (or any size dog), and it’s certainly not the answer to small dogs’ (or any dog’s) nutritional needs.

Processed pet food producers want to position small dogs as so different from “real” dogs that they need specialized diets. In fact, one “global director — nutrition and technical communications” for a pet food company goes so far as to say, “They’re not carnivores.” Actually, yes, they are. All dogs are.

Canines are scavenging carnivores, and need to be, in order to maintain health. Making dogs omnivores or vegetarians creates metabolic disease; however, it’s the stance the pet food industry must take to sell the biologically inappropriate products they produce.

If Big Pet Food’s pitch is successful, it opens up limitless opportunities to expand their product lines and develop marketing plans to sell diets specifically for small breed dogs. Now, these diets will be, for all intents and purposes, identical to diets for every other size dog — it’s really only the marketing, packaging and kibble size that will be different.

And you can bet there won’t be any independent (or even company-sponsored) pet food research substantiating the claim that toy and small breeds have a totally different set of nutritional requirements than other sized dogs. There also won’t be any long-term studies determining the safety or efficacy of feeding these fast-food diets for the lifetime of a pet.

From what I’ve been able to tell comparing formulas for small dogs and regular formulas, the differences are primarily in package sizes, product names and the way they’re marketed, and in some cases, kibble size.

Obviously, repackaging standard formulas and giving them cute names like “Wee Bits” and “Mighty Minis” does nothing to address the supposed “unique health issues and nutritional needs” of small dogs as advertised by pet food companies, but they don’t expect dog owners to connect the dots.

So that’s Big Pet Food’s play for the hearts and minds of small dog parents. Hopefully all of you reading here today won’t be fooled.

Your Dog’s Size Shouldn’t Dictate His Diet

In an ideal world, processed pet food manufacturers would put their significant resources toward getting the basics of canine (and feline) nutrition right and focus less on finding ways to re-engineer existing poor-quality formulas to expand their product lines.

Dry pet food with little or no high-quality animal protein and minimal moisture, but plenty of grains, carbs, starches, allergenic ingredients, non-nutritional fillers, synthetic amino acids, vitamins and minerals, additives and preservatives, is not species-appropriate nutrition for any dog, regardless of size. The fact is, when comparing a Great Dane to a Yorkie, they are all canine, specifically Canis lupus familiaris.

What is becoming apparent, through new canine DNA studies, is that a dog’s evolutionary lineage can play into expressed behavior traits and may dictate dietary preferences. For instance, dogs that evolved from northern parts of the world (Akitas, Huskies, Malamutes, etc.) may crave a diet higher in fish (or omega 3 fatty acids), which was a part of their evolutionary nutrition many moons ago.  Diane’s husky, Neko, loves all fish in his food.

In theory, customizing macronutrients and ingredients to a dog’s genetic lineage may prove to quite beneficial, but this isn’t what Big Pet Food is doing with their “breed specific” diets.

Sadly, humans have chosen to breed certain types of dogs down to sizes so small their organs often don’t function normally. And the AKC and other kennel clubs still condone (and paper) inbred animals. Since nature doesn’t design dogs to be that small, health problems are to be expected, including congenital organ problems which may require owners to feed a lower protein diet.

But assuming all small breeds require low protein diets is misguided. Certainly size, energy output and health problems are a consideration when determining any animal’s nutritional requirements, but a dog is still a dog — a carnivorous canine.

Those of you who have been readers for years know how I feel about this topic: unless breeders complete every possible genetic test for both parents and intentionally breed for “reparative conformation” (so the next litter may carry fewer genetic predispositions), they shouldn’t be breeding, and smaller isn’t better.

That being said, there are some small dogs who are born with poorly functioning livers or kidneys and must be on customized diets their whole lives: this is a result of bad breeding, not an evolutionary adaptation from being small.

Tips for Feeding Small Dogs

It’s very easy to overfeed and under-exercise any dog, and especially a small one, so it’s important to start out on the right foot and stay there.

Currently, AAFCO doesn’t link feeding instructions on dog food packaging to a dog’s energy requirements, so according to the bag or can, a super active 10-pound dog and a super lazy 10-pound dog should eat the same amount. Common sense says this can’t be true.

  1. Ignore pet food advertisements that suggest healthy small dogs need special diets.
  2. Calculate how much food your dog needs each day, then scale that amount up or down, depending on activity level.
  3. Feed an optimally balanced, species-appropriate, fresh food diet to your little one. Regardless of her size, your dog needs the right nutrition for her species, which means real food that is made from healthful ingredients (not feed-grade, rendered, slaughter house waste), high in human-grade animal protein and moisture, with low or no grain content or starches/carbohydrates.
  4. Practice portion control — typically a morning and evening meal, carefully measured. A high protein, low carb diet with the right number of calories, controlled through the portions you feed, will help your small dog remain at a healthy weight. And don’t forget to factor in any calories from treats.
  5. Use small training treats — Tiny dogs need only tiny training treats. Otherwise, you’ll have a not-so-tiny dog in no time. Anything more than, say, a treat the size of a quarter of a pea, is too big. You can buy or make treats to break into very small pieces; you can also use your dog’s regular food as treats.
  6. Regularly exercise your dog — Daily exercise, including at least 20 minutes of consistent aerobic activity, will help your pet burn fat and increase muscle tone.
  7. Evaluate your dog monthly — If she is losing weight, adjust calories. If she is gaining weight, adjust calories.
  8. Small and toy breeds are prone to dental disease because 42 teeth in one tiny mouth leads to crowding, and crowded teeth get dirtier faster. A raw diet and recreational raw bones or nontoxic dental chews will help keep plaque and tartar under control, but small breeds also need to have their teeth brushed daily, as well as routine veterinary dental exams.

The key to keeping your small dog healthy has nothing to do with offering “wee” or “mini” sizes of biologically inappropriate pet food. Help your little one stay at a healthy weight and nutritionally fit with a high animal protein, moisture rich diet fed in controlled portions, and augmented with plenty of physical activity.

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5 Questions to Ask Before Saying ‘Yes’ to Expensive Surgery

5 Questions to Ask Before Saying ‘Yes’ to Expensive Surgery

By Dr. Karen Becker and comments by Diane Weinmann

Some of the most difficult decisions we make as pet parents involve the treatment and ongoing care of an animal companion who is seriously ill or incapacitated.

Veterinary medicine is evolving in terms of new treatments, but just because a treatment is available doesn’t mean it’s appropriate in every situation. In fact, sometimes, refusing treatment is actually the best decision a person can make for their pet’s quality of life.

Asking the Right Questions

Receiving the news that a dog or cat is seriously ill or injured is extremely upsetting for most pet parents, but it’s important to keep your wits about you so that you can formulate the right questions to ask your veterinarian.

At a minimum, you need to know what’s wrong with your pet, the extent of the illness or injury, what treatment options are available and associated costs, and the best-case and worst-case scenarios for each type of treatment.

Armed with this information, I recommend you take a day or two to think things over and write down any additional questions or concerns that arise. This is also a good time to consider a second opinion, perhaps with a specialist such as a veterinary cardiologist, oncologist, or surgeon, depending on what’s wrong with your pet. Questions to ask yourself as you contemplate your pet’s treatment options:

  • What is in the overall best interests of my pet? This is a gut check to ensure it’s your pet’s interests and not your own that remain your primary focus.
  • How difficult will treatment be for my pet? If, for example, your cat is stressed out by car rides and veterinary visits, a course of treatment that requires lots of both will add to her discomfort and anxiety.
  • Will the recommended tests and treatments change my pet’s outcome? Unfortunately, sometimes “doing everything possible” in terms of diagnostic tests and treatments delivers no benefit whatsoever beyond helping pet parents feel they “did everything possible.”
  • Will the treatment offer my pet an improved quality of life? This is arguably the most important consideration.
  • What can I realistically afford in terms of financial and time commitments?

Planning Ahead

Preparation is priceless. I recommend establishing treatment boundaries before you find yourself in a situation in which your emotions are running high and you’re more apt to make decisions you may later regret. Some of the situations below are extremely difficult to contemplate, but whenever possible, it’s best to do so with a clear head. Things to consider:

  1. How will I pay for my pet’s treatment? You can find information on pet health insurance, other options to pay for pet care, and preventive care tips in my article One of the Most Neglected Aspects of Pet Ownership.
  2. How far will I go with treatment for my pet? Generally speaking, it makes little sense to put an elderly pet through a course of treatment (e.g., an amputation, back surgery, or removal of a major organ) that probably won’t improve and may even detract from his quality of life.
  3. How many invasive procedures will I allow my pet to undergo? Set an “invasiveness tolerance level” for your animal based on your own feelings and beliefs — your wise inner voice. For example, an ultrasound is a three-dimensional image taken with an external device that is entirely non-invasive but could be stressful for your pet.

Exploratory surgery, on the other hand, is the definition of invasive. Your pet will be put under general anesthesia, opened up, and her internal organs explored. If you’re unwilling to put your pet under the knife but you’re okay with an ultrasound, write it down so you know in advance how you feel about invasive procedures.

  1. How far will I let my pet be pushed? This involves assessing your pet’s individual stress tolerance level. If you must pack your elderly housecat off to an emergency clinic with dozens of barking dogs, bright lights, odd smells and strange people, it can be overwhelmingly stressful for her.

In such a case, you may decide not to put her through certain procedures — even if they’re warranted and you’d prefer they be done — because you know she’ll very likely have an emotional meltdown simply from the stress of the situation. Identify your pet’s stress threshold and make a decision ahead of time not to go beyond it.

  1. How do I feel about resuscitation and other end-stage issues? If your beloved pet slips into a coma at an emergency animal hospital, do you want the staff to perform CPR, or are you prepared let him go? If you want your pet saved at all costs, will you be able to manage a critically ill animal, perhaps on life support?
  2. How do I feel about euthanasia? Sort out your thoughts and feelings about euthanasia. Think about whether you agree in principle with it. If you must euthanize your pet, would you want it done at home? Which family members would be involved? How about your children, if you have any, and other pets?
  3. How do you want your pet’s remains handled upon death? Do you want to take her home for burial? Would you like her cremated and the ashes returned to you? Or would you prefer to leave the remains at the clinic for disposal? Try to give the situation some thought before the time arrives. Only you know what’s best for your pet, and for you and your family.

Taking Care of Yourself While You Care for Your Pet

Sharing your life with a pet brings immeasurable amounts of joy and unconditional love, but when your pet becomes ill, caring for him can take a toll on your mental health. Researchers assessed what they called “caregiver burden” in 238 owners of a dog or a cat.

It’s well known that caregivers of human patients facing a chronic or terminal illness experience heightened levels of stress, depression and anxiety, so the researchers set out to determine if the same held true for pet caregivers.

As you might suspect, the answer is yes. Compared to owners of healthy animals, the results showed greater burden, stress and symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as poorer quality of life, in owners of pets with chronic or terminal disease.1 In turn, the feeling of higher burden was linked to reduced psychosocial functioning.

It’s important to remember that you can’t care for your pet unless you care for yourself first. Practice positive self-care, from eating right to getting enough sleep, and reach out for support when you need it.

For many, the emotional toll is the hardest part of caring for a sick pet, which is why expressing your thoughts and feelings is crucial.

You needn’t keep your emotions bottled up; what you’re feeling — perhaps failure, frustration, inadequacy or guilt — is valid and by sharing your thoughts — in a journal, with a friend or in a support group — you can ultimately move past them and let them go. The International Association for Animal Hospice and Palliative Care (IAAHPC) states:2

“We encourage you to reach out to like-minded individuals in your community and online who have experienced similar situations, and ‘get it.’ Look to your local animal shelters, veterinary association, and pet funeral homes for pet loss support groups. Human hospice programs in your community offer grief and bereavement services to the public (interview them for their views on pet hospice first).”

In addition, if you’re feeling overwhelmed with decisions and information regarding your pet’s illness, ask for explanations from your veterinarian, and realize that you don’t have to shoulder the burden alone. If you need a moment to regroup, ask a close friend or family member to care for your pet so you can focus on stress relief.

“[T]he ability to think clearly will directly affect how effective you can be in your care for your animal companion,” IAAHPC notes. “Respite, or some time away from caregiving, can be important to your continued well-being.”

Despite the stress and, oftentimes, uncertainty, there can be great solace in being there for your pet when he needs you most. Sometimes, if you’re feeling anxious or overwhelmed the best thing you can do is to simply sit and be with your pet in the present moment.

As an alternative, consulting with an animal communicator, like Diane Weinmann, to obtain the wishes of your pet, along with signs that they will display if they are ready to transition into spirit and if they want assistance with that journey can also take the uncertainty of the situation away.

Take some deep breaths, practice mindfulness or meditation, and your calmness will likely be felt by your pet as well.

 

Panic Attacks in Dogs

Panic Attacks in Dogs

As seen in PetMD and comments by Diane Weinmann

 

Anticipating a fearful or negative experience with certain people, objects, animals, or situations can lead to anxiety.

But when does anxiety veer into panic? Can dogs have panic attacks? Here’s everything you need to know about panic attacks in dogs.

Can Dogs Experience Panic Attacks?

Dogs can certainly experience panic attacks, similar to people. People who suffer from panic attacks report a sudden feeling of intense fear.

They may experience a physiological response, such as an elevated heart rate. They may also sweat, tremble, be nauseous, and have a headache.

Usually, there is no specific trigger, but the panic attack can occur during times of high stress.

How Can We Tell If a Dog Is Having a Panic Attack?

Of course we cannot ask a dog how they feel, but we can look for the signs of panic, such as:

  • Sudden panting
  • Pacing
  • Trembling
  • Excessive salivation
  • Looking for a place to hide
  • Seeking their owner’s attention in a frantic manner
  • Pawing or jumping up on their owner
  • Digging in the bed, closet, or bathroom
  • Vomiting
  • Gastrointestinal upset (immediate defecation or diarrhea, for example)
  • Urinating

One of my canine patients who was experiencing panic pulled out the drawer under the oven and tried to hide in the opening.

How to Tell the Difference Between Anxiety, Phobias, and Panic Attacks in Dogs

Is your dog having anxiety, suffering from a phobia, or having a panic attack?

Phobias vs. Panic Attacks in Dogs

How we distinguish a phobia from a panic attack is based on a presence of a trigger. If there is a specific trigger that elicits those intense reactions from your dog, then it may be classified as a phobia.

People with phobias have described it as experiencing an irrational fear of something. This feeling can be similar in dogs.

The trigger can be a sound, person, object, location, or situation. Many dogs experience phobias to thunderstorms and fireworks.

Usually there is no trigger that causes the panic attack in a dog.

Dog Anxiety vs. Panic Attacks

So what about anxiety?

Anxiety comes when your dog is dreading a specific event or situation. The anticipated threat can be real or perceived.

An example is a dog showing signs of anxiety before a vet trip. They have picked up on the cues that they are going to the vet, and become anxious about the encounter.  Another example is when Diane’s dog comes to get her, panting loudly, when no one is awake to let him out in the early morning to pee/eliminate.  He sleeps with my son but if he isn’t home then he relies on me to let him out—he just has to wake me!  Some signs of anxiety in dogs include:

  • Panting
  • Pacing
  • Vocalizing
  • Eliminating inappropriately or involuntarily
  • Soliciting attention from their owners
  • Pulling ears back against their head with the head lowered and tail hanging down or tucked under the abdomen

Tips For Helping Dogs Cope With Panic Attacks

Dogs that experience panic attacks should receive a thorough physical examination from their veterinarian. Diagnostic tests may be performed to rule out any medical causes for the reactions. Diane recommends the Bach flower essence “Rescue Remedy” 4-5 drops giving directly in your pet’s mouth to help them cope with stress.

Provide Plenty of Exercise and Mental Stimulation

Pet owners should also make sure they provide plenty of physical and mental exercise for their dogs—as long as their veterinarian approves the level of exercise.

A minimum of a 15-20 minute walk and/or 15-20 minutes of play every day can reduce a dog’s stress levels.

Providing your dogs with puzzle toys to work for their meals can also help stimulate and tire out their brain.

Short training sessions can be helpful to keep your dog mentally occupied as well.

Offer Comfort to Your Dog During a Panic Attack

If your dog is having a panic attack and he comes to you for attention, you can pet, hug, or hold him if that helps ease the signs of his panic. You can also diffuse lavender essential oil or pet on Calm-A-Mile oil from Dr. Melissa Shelton DVM. http://www.animaleo.info/order-animaleo.html

Depending on how intense the episode is, you can try to:

  • Distract and redirect your dog to play with toys
  • Take your dog for a walk
  • Practice basic dog obedience cues or tricks for high value-treats

Other dogs may enjoy being pet, brushed, or massaged by their owners.

You should also provide a place for your dog to hide. Play calming classical music and make sure the space is free of external stimulants (house traffic, other pets, etc.). You can also use dog pheromone sprays or plug-in diffusers to help reduce anxiety in that location.

Look Into Supplements or Medication to Help Manage Your Dog’s Panic Attacks

Some dogs may benefit from the use of natural supplements such as l-theanine or l-tryptophan. Both are ingredients that have a calming effect on animals.

However, if your dog experiences intense panic attacks, where they are hurting themselves by trying to jump through windows or chewing or digging through the walls, they need to see their veterinarian to have antianxiety medications prescribed for them.

Antianxiety medication can be used as needed. In some cases, a pet may benefit from a daily maintenance medication to keep them calmer overall.

If your dog is experiencing panic attacks on a regular basis, then the maintenance medication can help them cope with these episodes. It may also reduce the frequency and duration of the panic attacks.

Avoid Punishing Your Dog

Just like with humans, getting angry at someone who is experiencing panic will rarely resolve the issue. In most cases, it will only make it worse.

So, yelling at your dog, spraying them with water, forcing them to lie down, or using a shock collar is not going to help a dog that’s experiencing a panic attack.

These techniques will only increase fear and anxiety. Your dog cannot control their emotions or physiological responses in these scenarios. If they could control themselves and choose another option, they probably would.

No one who has experienced a panic attack reported that it was a pleasant experience and wanted to experience another. Your dog needs your love and support to help them through their time of need.

By: Dr. Wailani Sung, MS, PhD, DVM, DACVB

New Urinary Tract Infection Test Yields Results in Minutes

 

New Urinary Tract Infection Test Yields Results in Minutes

By Dr. Karen Becker

If you’re a regular visitor here and read my Healthy Pets newsletters, you’re probably aware that I have a major issue with the overuse of antibiotics in veterinary medicine. One reason is because like people, pets can develop allergies to medications that are overprescribed. In addition, antibiotics have side effects, many of which are long-term.

Another reason is antibiotic resistance, a rapidly expanding and deadly menace, which is the result of too frequent and unnecessary use of these drugs. In addition, antibiotic residues are passed up the food chain, so even if your veterinarian hasn’t over-prescribed them for your pet, there’s a good chance your animal companion is exposed to them regularly through the food he eats.

Dogs and cats ingest antibiotics when they eat food containing the meat of animals that were factory farmed, which includes about 99% of pet foods on the market today. The exception would be if you’re buying free-range, organic meats and making your own pet food, or if you’re purchasing one of a very small handful of pet foods that contain free-range, organic meats.

The Test You Should Insist on Before Giving Your Pet an Antibiotic

It’s important to understand that viral and fungal infections do not respond to antibiotics. Administering these drugs to treat a non-bacterial infection is a classic example of indiscriminate overuse, and I see it happen entirely too often in veterinary medicine. Veterinarians don’t know exactly what to do with a sneezing or coughing or itchy pet, so they send the owner home with an antibiotic.

That’s why I always urge every pet parent to insist on a bacterial culture and sensitivity test when your dog or cat is suspected of having or is diagnosed with an infection. Before you agree to a course of treatment, if your veterinarian doesn’t suggest it, insist on that test.

A culture is simply a sample from the affected area. It could be a sterile swab dipped in urine, or a swab of infected tissue, skin, or ear discharge. The sample is incubated and monitored for organism growth, which typically starts the following day. When colonies of organisms form, each one is tested to determine what type of bacteria is present.

The sensitivity portion of the test involves placing tiny amounts of different antibiotics on the organisms to see which ones the bacteria are the most sensitive (susceptible) to. The minimum inhibitory concentration, or MIC, is the lowest concentration of antibiotic that prevents visible growth of bacteria, allowing the veterinarian to choose the correct antibiotic and dose to successfully treat your pet’s infection.

The decision-making process must also involve choosing an antibiotic that can be administered by injection, orally or topically for optimum results in the specific area of the body where the infection is located.

If your veterinarian prescribes an antibiotic without a culture and sensitivity test, he or she is making a guess at what type of organism is present and the best antibiotic to treat it — a practice known as empirical prescribing. Although lots of vets are very good guessers, given the growing danger of antibiotic-resistant strains of disease-causing bacteria, in my opinion, there’s no longer any room for error.

Each time an unnecessary or inappropriate antibiotic is prescribed, the potential for resistance increases. A bacterial culture and sensitivity test gives your veterinarian two very important pieces of information: the precise organism causing the infection and the best antibiotic to treat it.

Only in an emergency situation should your veterinarian prescribe an antibiotic before the bacterial culture and sensitivity test can be performed. He or she can then switch medications if necessary when the test results arrive.

A culture and sensitivity test takes a little extra time, usually a minimum of 72 hours, so you should be prepared to leave your veterinarian’s office without a definitive diagnosis of exactly what type of bacteria is growing, and without a prescription. Rest assured the additional time it takes to identify the type of bacteria present and the medication needed will allow precise treatment of your pet’s infection rather than a risky hit-or-miss approach.

A New In-House Culture and Sensitivity Test for Urinary Tract Infections

With all the above said, I was very encouraged to learn recently of a new urine test developed by a company called Test&Treat.1 It’s an in-house test (meaning it can be performed right in your veterinarian’s office) that identifies urinary tract infections (UTIs) in pets and the best antibiotics to treat them. Signs your dog or cat may have a urinary tract infection include:

Suddenly urinating in the house or outside the litterbox Constant licking of urinary openings
Visible blood in the urine or litterbox; dark or cloudy urine Loss of bladder control; urine dribbling
Frequent trips to the litterbox; inability to pass urine or passing very little Vomiting, lethargy, lack of appetite
Straining to urinate; hunched posture; crying out in pain Drinking more water than usual

The “U-treat” test results are produced in minutes, which means veterinarians don’t need to play a medication guessing game while they wait for the results of urine samples that had to be sent to an outside laboratory. It also means your pet can begin receiving the correct therapy right away. According to VetSurgeon.org:2

“In addition, the company says that the test will help support the responsible use of antibiotics, which is particularly important given that Enterococci strains identified in canine urinary infections have been found to be resistant to three or more antimicrobials.”3

The U-treat test has two steps. The first step detects the presence (or absence) of a bacterial urinary infection and takes 5 minutes. The second step tests antibiotic susceptibility, and the results show the best choice of antibiotic as well as those that won’t work due to antimicrobial resistance. Step two takes 45 minutes.

U-treat was evaluated in cats and dogs at the University of Tennessee. According to VetSurgeon.org, the test demonstrated high levels of sensitivity (97.1%) and specificity (92%), compared to lab tests. U-treat is currently validated for use in dogs and cats and is being looked at for use in horses as well. It may also at some point cross over for use in human medicine.

Be Sure to Give Your Pet Antibiotics Exactly as Prescribed

A bacterial culture and sensitivity test will ensure your dog or cat heals more quickly and thoroughly. In addition, giving the proper dose of the antibiotic at the proper intervals and using up the entire prescription is important, even if your pet seems to be fully recovered before the medication has run out.

This will ensure the infection is fully resolved and prevent your pet from having to take another full course of antibiotics because the first one wasn’t finished, and the infection wasn’t effectively cleared.

Also Be Sure to Replenish the Healthy Bacteria in Your Pet’s Gut

It’s important to recognize that antibiotics literally mean “anti-life.” They indiscriminately kill off all bacteria, both the good guys and the bad guys. If your dog or cat has been treated with antibiotics, the trillions of healthy bacteria in her digestive tract have also been destroyed, which can set the stage for additional health problems, such as digestive upsets, intermittent diarrhea, poor food absorption, and dysbiosis (leaky gut syndrome).

It’s important to reseed your pet’s gastrointestinal (GI) system with friendly microorganisms — probiotics — during and after antibiotic therapy to reestablish a healthy balance of gut bacteria. This will also help keep your dog or cat’s digestive system working optimally and her immune system strong.