Can Cats Have a Raw Food Diet?

By Aly Semigran as seen on PetMD

cat-wet-food

 A cat’s natural instinct—even a friendly, loveable housecat—is to hunt for food. And if left to their own devices out in the wild, cats would find their food in a raw, natural state.

 That’s why, with the proper preparation, knowledge, and veterinary guidance, a pet parent can provide their cat with a raw food diet that not only taps into their feline instincts, but keeps them healthy and strong too.

 Should Cats Have a Raw Food Diet?

 Cats, like dogs, can be fed a raw food diet, and some holistic veterinarians even recommend that pet parents should have this as part of their cat’s lifestyle. In fact, as Jodie Gruenstern, DVM, points out, a raw food diet may be even more important for cats than it is for dogs “because they are stricter carnivores than dogs.”

What Should Be Included in a Raw Food Diet for Cats?

 Gruenstern says there are four main components that need to be included in a raw food diet for cats. A balanced raw diet should include flesh, organs, a bone or ground bone and a small amount of vegetation.

In addition, Jill Elliot, DVM, explains that pet parents can also add calcium to a raw-food diet for cats. This can be administered through supplements and small amounts of cat-safe dairy products.”

 When planning a raw food diet for cats—whether preparing food at home or purchasing a commercial raw food from the pet store—it’s important to work closely with your veterinarian to ensure that your cat is receiving proper, balanced nutrition, and to decide which supplements need to be included.

You can also choose a commercially prepared raw cat food. These are available at many pet stores and come with a certification from the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO). AAFCO certified foods provide complete and balanced nutrition and do not require supplementation. This often takes the guesswork out if you’re considering switching to a raw food diet for cats.

 

What Are the Benefits of a Raw Food Diet For Cats?

 Gruenstern explains that the biggest benefit to a raw food diet for cats is the elimination of starch. Starches and sugars in cat foods may lead to health issues such as diabetes, inflammation, arthritis, urinary tract diseases, and obesity, she says.

 Erika Halle, DVM, agrees. “Obesity is still possible with raw food, but much less likely than with processed, high carbohydrate food.”

 Cats also need taurine in their diets (about 125 milligrams on average) to achieve maximum heart health. This essential compound is often damaged in the heating process of kibble cat foods. “Raw foods tend not to have this issue,” Halle adds, noting that a high volume of taurine is often found in muscle and heart meat that is often a part of raw food diets.

 How Early Can a Cat Be Started on a Raw Food Diet?

 As soon as a kitten is weaned from its mother, the feline can begin a raw food diet.

 Halle suggests feeding home cooked, dehydrated raw, or canned food until six months, then switching to fresh and frozen raw. “Once the system is mature at six months they are ready to handle a raw diet,” she says.

What Are the Best Foods For a Raw Food Diet?

 Variety is an important component of this meal plan for cats. Meats, like ground turkey, are the best option when it comes to a raw food diet for cats, but Gruenstern suggests providing a cat with a variety of meat. “That’s how you’ll minimize the repetition of a deficiency or an excess,” she says.

 One of Gruenstern’s preferred raw food meals for a cat is a whole quail, which can be fed half in the morning and then half in the evening. She explains that quail is a good choice for cats because their bones are a safe size and do not present a choking hazard for cats. Cats can also benefit from the oral care that bones—such as quail bones—provide. Of course, pet parents should monitor cats whenever they are eating bones to ensure there are no choking risks.

 Judy Morgan, DVM, recommends dark muscle meat from poultry and heart muscles in raw cat diets. She also recommends that pet parents include liver in raw food diets for cats. Both dark meat and heart muscle have high rates of taurine.

Morgan also suggests including whole eggs for the fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) found in the yolk, and the protein in the whites. Fish can also be included in a raw food diet for the omega 3 fatty acid content, she adds. According to Morgan, sardines are a good option because they are less likely to have a high concentration of heavy metals.

 

While veggies aren’t necessary in a raw food diet for cats, some vets like to add them into the food. “A small amount of pumpkin is a nice addition for the fiber it provides,” Morgan says. “A small amount of kelp will provide sodium and iodine. I also like to add about five percent ground veggies, which can include kale, carrots, zucchini, and parsley.”

 However, whatever meats and veggies you do decide to include in your cat’s diet, Gruenstern recommends adding a veterinary-recommended calcium source as well as freeze dried organs (including brain, spleen, kidney, liver, heart, and gizzards) to fill in any nutritional gaps.

 Commercial Raw Foods for Cats: What to Look For

 Commercial raw foods for cats are prepared foods you’ll find in stores, often found in a frozen or freeze-dried form. But, labels are important when it comes to deciding which raw food is best for your cat.

 “A few of the main differences among commercial raw diets is whether or not they’re high-pressure pasteurized, and whether or not they have synthetic vitamins and minerals,” explains Gruenstern. “In general, there’s lots of commercial raw diets that have attained the AAFCO certification [showing] they’re balanced in a variety of ways, just like kibble or canned food.”

 Finding a high-pressure pasteurized food is important because the pasteurization process destroys any pathogenic bacteria, says Gruenstern. This is especially important for cats that suffer from immune disorders such as feline leukemia or have been treated with steroids, which can weaken the immune system.

 Gruenster adds that most healthy cats are prime candidates for commercial raw pet foods, though she warns that pet parents should avoid foods with synthetic vitamins and minerals, since the concentrated vitamin form in synthetics may cause a toxicity in cats. “A toxicity occurs when high doses of [synthetic] vitamins are taken over a prolonged period of time,” adds Scerba.

 Raw Food for Cats: Home Preparation Tips and Safety Guidelines

 If preparing raw food for cats at home—whether feeding whole prey and parts or grinding the meats—pet parents need to take more precautions and steps to ensure the cat’s safety, as well as their own.

 “If you are making your own food, the meats should be purchased frozen, then thawed before serving or partially thawed before grinding and refreezing,” says Halle.

 “If raw diets are not formulated to be balanced properly, there can be nutritional deficiencies,” Halle notes. “And if the food is not handled appropriately there is a risk of foodborne illnesses like salmonella.”

 

Still, both Elliot and Gruenstern note that salmonella poisoning from handling raw foods for cats is very rare, and that as long as pet parents are taking all the proper steps (washing their hands, disinfecting surfaces and utensils, buying foods from a reputable source) they shouldn’t experience this problem.

Just be sure to wash out bowls after every feeding and don’t forget to refrigerate and put away any raw food after mealtime.

cat-fat

 

Cat’s Weight and Healthy Treats

By Dr. Becker and comments by Diane Weinmann

cat-hunting-outside

It’s a fact that almost 60 percent of house cats in the U.S. are overweight or obese. It’s also a fact that the formula for a fat cat is:

  • An inappropriate diet, including junk food treats
  • Free feeding and/or over feeding
  • Insufficient exercise

If you’re the parent of a corpulent kitty and you’ve committed to dieting your furry family member down to a healthy weight, the first step is to make a slow, gradual switch from dry food to canned food, then to either a balanced homemade or commercially prepared species-appropriate diet.

 

One cat I know is hugely overweight because he gets too many treats and not enough exercise.  This is your typical scenario but there are many ways to change the outcome for this chubby kitty.

Here’s What Biologically Appropriate Cat Food Looks Like

“Species-appropriate” for cats means a diet of animal protein that is moisture-rich and very low in carbohydrates. For example, a popular commercial raw organic chicken diet for cats consists of 98 percent chicken necks (with ground bone), backs, thigh meat, gizzards, livers and hearts.

The manufacturer adds a small amount of fish oil and a nutrient mix that includes important trace minerals, sea salt and vitamins from natural sources, as well as organic psyllium husk fiber.

There are no grains in this diet, and the protein comes from real meat, not vegetables, not plants and not meat byproducts. This meat-based diet is best fed raw, or very gently cooked.

How Much Should Your Cat Eat Every Day?cat-with-feather

Since a fresh food diet can’t be free-fed due to spoilage, you’ve solved two problems at once by transitioning your chunky kitty away from kibble. Most likely you’re feeding two meals a day, morning and evening, so now the goal is portion control of those two meals to insure you’re not overfeeding.

Let’s say your chunky kitty weighs 18 pounds and you and your veterinarian believe his ideal weight is 14 pounds. The following formula will give you the amount of calories he should consume each day to lose those 4 pounds. First, convert his goal weight to kilograms by dividing by 2.2:

14 pounds divided by 2.2 = 6.36 kilograms

Second, multiply the kilograms by 30 and then add 70:

6.36 kilograms x 30 = 191 + 70 = 261

Third, multiply that result by 0.8:

261 x 0.8 = 209

Your 18-pound cat should eat 209 calories a day, or about 104 to 105 calories at each of his two daily meals, to reach his 14-pound goal weight. If you also offer him treats, you’ll need to determine how many treat calories you’re feeding, and reduce the amount of food accordingly to maintain the 209 calories-per-day total.

This isn’t something I recommend you do on a regular basis because treats — even homemade ones — don’t offer the balance of nutrients found in a species-appropriate, fresh food diet.

In addition, most processed pet treats are loaded with sugar and preservatives. Most cats will transition from junk food treats to cubed low fat meats quite easily. But surprisingly, many cats will also eat fresh produce (think “roughage”), and there are some fruits and vegetables you can safely feed to your cat as occasional treats that are high in antioxidants and fat-free.  Shown below is a list of these fruits and veggies:

Cat Safe Veggies and Fruits for Snackingcats-safe

 

✓ Apple slices (no cores or seeds) — contain powerful antioxidants and vitamin C ✓ Kale — loaded with vitamins (especially vitamins K, A and C), iron and antioxidants
✓ Cantaloupe — loaded with vitamins C and A ✓ Baked sweet potatoes — rich in beta-carotene and antioxidants, high in vitamins A and C
✓ Bananas — a rich source of potassium and fiber ✓ Steamed green beans — contain vitamins A, C and K, beneficial minerals and beta-carotene
✓ Baked carrots — low in calories and high in fiber and vitamins ✓ Steamed spinach — has anti-inflammatory properties
✓ Steamed broccoli — contains healthy fiber and beneficial nutrients including potassium, calcium, protein, and vitamin C ✓ Steamed asparagus — a rich source of vitamins and minerals
Fermented veggies — potent detoxifiers that contain high levels of probiotics and vitamin K2 Cooked or canned 100 percent pumpkin — an excellent source of fiber, vitamin A and antioxidants.

All the fruits and vegetables above are safe for cats. If your kitty will eat them, remember to:

  • Cook the veggies to prevent choking and improve digestibility
  • Serve them plain (no sugar, salt, spices, butter or other additives)
  • Offer them only occasionally, and in very small portions

Foods you never want to offer your cat include onions, garlic, chives, grapes and raisins.

5 Tips for Helping Your Cat Exercise

  1. Make sure kitty has things to climb on, like a multi-level cat tree or tower.
  2. Invest in a laser toy, either an inexpensive one, or something a bit more sophisticated like the Frolicat™ line.

 

  1. Choose toys and activities that appeal to your cat’s hunting instinct.
  2. Don’t overlook old standbys, like dragging a piece of string across the floor in view of your cat. Ping-pong balls are another oldie but goodie, along with bits of paper rolled into balls, and any light object that can be made to move fast and in unexpected ways.
  3. I also recommend walking your cat in nice weather using a harness. This gets him out into the fresh air, stimulates his senses and gets his paws in direct contact with the ground.

An alternative is a safe, fully enclosed porch or patio area that prevents your cat from getting out and other animals from getting in.

 

A cat companion that is a healthy weight will be more likely to feel better, have less vet visits and provide many more years of fun together than an overweight pet.  My question to all cat owners is how much do you love them?  Enough to keep them healthy and provide the environment they need to excel?  I know the pitfall of providing treats to show love but playful  affection is a much better choice for your kitty’s wellness!

 

 

Updated List of Best-to-Worst Types of Pet Food

By Dr. Becker and Diane Weinmanngood-dog-food-2620000

Feeding your pet is a major portion of your job as a pet parent. You obsess and worry if you are feeding the right food, heck, you are inundated with commercials on the TV of which food is best for your pet.  How do you chose?  Here is some information that can help in the decision making process.

Processed Diets Can Also Contain Carcinogens

Not only are processed pet foods biologically inappropriate, they also contain added synthetic vitamins and minerals to meet basic nutritional requirements. The food is heated to very high temperatures, which at best denatures proteins and decreases nutrient value. At worst, it introduces carcinogens into your pet’s body on a daily basis.

Two potent cancer-causing substances are created when dry pet food is made by the extrusion process. When protein is extruded, carcinogenic heterocyclic amines are created. The byproducts of extruded starches are acrylamides. Both are known to cause cancer in dogs and cats. This is quite disturbing when you consider the fact that most pets across the globe are eating dry food their entire lives, and the cancer rate is skyrocketing in companion animals.

Feeding dogs and cats inappropriate ingredients for several generations has created significant metabolic and physiologic stress. Convenience pet foods are the root cause of the inflammatory processes and degenerative diseases that plague today’s dogs and cats. A biologically correct diet for a carnivore is high in moisture, high in protein, moderate in fat, and low in carbohydrates. The vast majority of pet foods on the market today are the opposite – low in moisture content, with low to moderate amounts of poor quality protein and fat, and high in starches or carbs.

Feed Your Pet the Best Diet You Can Reasonably Afford

The goal in feeding your pet a diet she can truly thrive on is to mimic the ancestral diet of dogs and cats as closely as possible without breaking the bank.

Now, I know some of you might be thinking “Gee, I would like to feed myself an all-organic, free range, non-genetically modified, and fresh food diet… but I just can’t afford to.” I certainly understand, and my basic recommendation is to feed yourself and your pet as much unprocessed, fresh food as you can afford.

I have clients who can’t afford to feed an all-fresh, living, and raw food diet, so they offer fresh food snacks instead. Research shows that offering some healthy foods is better than offering no healthy food at all.

I also have clients who can afford to feed their pet maybe 2 to 4 fresh food meals out of 14 in a week. Others do a 50/50 split, meaning one meal a day is a processed pet food, and the other is a fresh food meal.

I recommend taking baby steps toward providing the best diet you can afford for your dog or cat.

 dogs and cats eating

  1. Nutritionally balanced raw homemade diet. This is the best diet you can feed your dog or cat. It’s very important not to wing it when preparing your pet’s meals at home. I say this because when pet food nutrition expert Steve Brown and I analyzed many of the homemade and prey model diets available, we learned they fall far short in trace minerals, antioxidants including nutrients like manganese, magnesium, vitamin E and D, copper, zinc, iron, choline, and essential fatty acids.

Additionally, if the diet doesn’t have a proper fat or calcium to phosphorus balance, it can actually cause a myriad of health problems, especially in growing animals. So, it’s critically important that you know your homemade diet is balanced.

The great thing about homemade raw diets is you get to handpick the ingredients. You know the quality of the meat you’re using. And if your dog is allergic to chicken, for example, you simply pick a different protein source. Another benefit is you can wash the veggies to your own satisfaction to remove any pesticide residue.

Making your own pet food can provide peace of mind because it’s becoming increasingly more difficult to find ethical pet food companies that use locally sourced or even US-grown ingredients. With homemade food, you’re in complete control of every ingredient that enters your pet’s body.

And of course, raw food is just that. It’s raw and unadulterated. It contains all of the enzymes and phytonutrients that are typically destroyed during food processing.

Homemade food also gives you the flexibility to include a lot of nutritional variety in your pet’s diet. You can buy seasonal fruits and veggies on sale. You can use produce that comes from your local supermarket, your local farmer’s market, or even from your own garden.

  1. Nutritionally balanced cooked homemade diet. This option gives you all of the benefits of the homemade raw diet above, minus the benefits of the free enzymes and phytonutrients found in living foods. Interestingly, there are a few nutrients that are actually more bioavailable when cooked, for example, lycopene.

Reasons to cook your pet’s meals include the fact that some animals prefer cooked over raw food, or warm food over chilled food. Also, some pet owners simply prefer to cook the food. And then, there are some medical conditions such as recent GI surgery or pancreatitis for which cooked food is just a better idea.

 

  1. Commercially available balanced raw food diet. Again, it’s critically important that the diet be balanced. There are a lot of raw diets on the market these days that are nutritionally incomplete. These foods should say right on the label, “For supplemental or intermittent feeding.” I don’t recommend feeding unbalanced foods without adding in the missing nutrients, or your pet can have nutrition-related medical problems in the future.

Commercially available balanced raw food diets are found in the freezer section of small or privately owned pet boutiques. Some big-box stores are now starting to carry a larger selection of frozen raw diets, and you can also find an excellent selection online.

There are new raw diets coming on the market every month and vegetable, bone, and fat content vary widely between products. For example, diets range from 0 to 40 percent in vegetable content. This can impact the amount of synthetic vitamins and minerals that must be added to the diet to make it nutritionally complete. In addition, vegetable content impacts digestive and stool health. So if, for example, you have a dog who suffers from chronic constipation, you may want to choose a food with higher veggie content.

Commercially available raw food diets also range from low fat to high fat. If you have an obese cat, you would want to select a low-fat diet, but if you have a highly active dog on the lean side who loses weight quickly, it would make sense to choose a higher fat food.

Ground bone, bone meal, or a bone meal equivalent is typically added to raw diets for mineral balance. Some raw foods contain bone pieces that are actually too big to be safely cooked, so if you choose a raw diet and want to cook it, make sure it’s safe to do so.

When it comes to ingredient sourcing, some raw food companies pride themselves on using only healthy, grass-fed animals and organic veggies. Others use animal meats and produce imported from China or other countries, as well as factory-farmed and GMO-fed animals raised in feedlots here in the US.

Some use whole foods to meet trace mineral requirements, while others use very few ingredients and rely on vitamin and mineral pre-mixes to meet their nutritional requirements.

Another factor to consider is how the raw food is formulated. Meat-based foods like raw diets are almost always calorically dense. They should be formulated on a caloric basis and not on a dry matter basis. This is a more demanding method of formulating. Comparing the formulation on a dry matter basis to caloric basis shows that raw foods formulated on a dry matter basis actually fall significantly short of nutrients.

You know a raw diet is formulated on a caloric basis when the nutrients are listed as a gram or milligram of nutrient per 1,000 kilocalories. Diets formulated on a dry matter basis will have nutrients listed as a percentage of dry matter. I only recommend choosing raw foods that are formulated on a caloric basis.

How companies manage potentially pathogenic bacteria is another consideration, and ranges from manufacturers who do nothing, to those who batch test, use UV treatments, ozone, fermentation, or HPP (high pressure pasteurization).

Fortunately, this sector of the pet food industry is the fastest growing category, which means you should be able to find a food that fits your ethical and financial parameters, with the added convenience of not having to make the food yourself. The downside is the cost – you’re paying for the luxury of having someone else do the work for you. As with all pet food manufacturers, you’ll need to investigate the company you’re buying from to make sure you’re feeding the correct product for your pet’s specific nutritional and medical goals.

  1. Dehydrated or freeze-dried raw diet. If you can’t or don’t want to feed fresh raw food, a good alternative is a dehydrated freeze-dried raw diet that is reconstituted with water. These diets are shelf-stable so they’re very convenient. To make them biologically appropriate, all you have to do is add water.

Dehydrated or freeze-dried raw diets haven’t been processed at high temperatures. In many cases, the nutrient value has been retained minus a balanced fatty acid profile.

Keep in mind that there is a difference between fresh and dehydrated or freeze-dried raw food. Dehydrated and freeze-dried foods by definition are not the same as fresh raw diets, but they can be a great choice for people on the move, people who go camping with their dog or cat, and for pets that go to day care or need to be boarded. It’s really the next best thing to a fresh raw food diet. Make sure the brand you select is nutritionally balanced for all life stages.

  1. Commercially available cooked or refrigerated food. This is a new category of pet food that is exploding in the marketplace. These diets have been gently heat-processed so the proteins are slightly denatured, but the moisture content is excellent. The food is fresher than processed diets, so the nutrient content is better than choices lower on this list. You’ll find these foods in the refrigerated section of pet stores, and in many human grocery stores as well.

The quality of raw materials in refrigerated pet food ranges from absolutely terrible to excellent, so you do need to do some research before choosing which brand to buy.

  1. Human-grade canned food. If the package label or the manufacturer’s website doesn’t say the ingredients are human grade, you should assume they are not. Pet food made with human grade ingredients is a great deal more expensive than feed-grade or animal-grade canned food. These foods will typically be found in boutiques and small independent retailers that focus on high-quality foods.
  2. Super premium canned food. These products are typically found at big-box stores like Petco and PetSmart, or a conventional veterinary clinic. These diets contain feed-grade ingredients (which mean foods not approved for human consumption). But, the moisture content is much more biologically correct than dry food. Many have excellent protein, fat, fiber, and carb ratios.
  3. Human-grade dry food. Dry food is not biologically appropriate for dogs or cats in terms of moisture content when compared to the ancestral diet. Additionally, even grain-free dry foods contain unnecessary starch that can cause inflammation issues in your pet.

Human-grade is very important because the ingredients have passed quality inspection, which means they don’t contain poor quality or rendered unidentified proteins. If the food has been baked, it will clearly say so on the label. Otherwise, you should assume it has been extruded, which means you are probably feeding a small amount of carcinogens to your pet with every meal.

 

  1. Super premium dry food. These diets are found at big-box stores and conventional veterinary clinics. These extruded dry foods are made with feed-grade ingredients not approved for human consumption but are typically naturally preserved. Most of these foods contain added grains or starches, which are not species-appropriate and may harbor mycotoxins.

 

  1. Grocery store brand canned food. These foods rank below super premium dry foods because even though the moisture content is more biologically appropriate, they usually contain high levels of unnecessary grains and synthetic toxic preservatives such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and ethoxyquin.

 

  1. Grocery store brand dry food. These diets have all the same issues as grocery store brand canned food, and also do not contain adequate moisture.
  2. Semi-moist pouched food. This stuff is really bad. The reason it is so far down the list is because in order to make the food semi-moist, the manufacturers must add an ingredient called propylene glycol. Propylene glycol is an undesirable preservative that is closely related to ethylene glycol, which is antifreeze. While propylene glycol is approved for use in pet foods, it’s unhealthy for dogs and cats to consume.

 

  1. Unbalanced homemade diet, raw or cooked. Dead last on the list for good reason is an unbalanced homemade diet. Some pet owners believe they can offer their dog or cat a chicken breast and some veggies, and call it a day. Many caring pet owners are unfortunately sorely lacking in knowledge about their companion animal’s nutritional requirements.

 

Feeding fresh homemade food is a good thing, however, if the diet you’re offering your pet is nutritionally unbalanced, it can cause significant irreversible and even potentially fatal health problems. These include endocrine abnormalities, skeletal issues, and organ degeneration as a result of deficiencies in calcium, trace minerals, and essential fatty acids.

Almost every veterinarian has seen patients that have been harmed by well-meaning owners who feed unbalanced diets. It’s heartbreaking and entirely preventable. Homemade pet diets must be done right or not at all. When in doubt please consult your vet before starting a homemade diet for your pet. Going homemade is a huge decision and obviously you’ll want to do what’s best for your pet so don’t do it alone get information from reliable proven sources. Don’t forget the old saying, “you are what you eat”…I must be ice cream!

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