How to give your indoor cat the best of both worlds

By Dr. Karen Becker and comments by Diane Weinmann


Not long ago at a veterinary conference, a Dr. Margie Scherk, a vet from Vancouver, Canada with a feline practice, spoke on the topic of lifestyle risks of indoor versus outdoor cats. One of her points was that while many people believe responsible cat owners keep their pets indoors, “The fact is that cats have not been selectively bred to be indoors 24 hours a day, and many don’t adjust to living in close contact to people — they’re forced to.”1

Lifestyle risks of indoor cats

According to Scherk, who cites a 2005 study published in the journal Applied Animal Behaviour Science,2 the following are risks to cats who live entirely indoors:

Lower urinary tract diseases Boredom
Hyperthyroidism Household hazards (burns, poison exposure, falls)
Obesity Inactivity, decreased fitness
Diabetes Behavior problems (spraying, scratching, obsessive behavior)
Odontoclastic resorptive lesions Dermatologic problems (atopic dermatitis, acral lick dermatitis)

Lifestyle risks of indoor-outdoor and outdoor-only cats

Thanks to KittyCams, researchers have been able to learn plenty about the kinds of risky business free-roaming cats get up to when they’re wandering around outdoors, including:3

Trauma (usually involving being hit by a vehicle) or human abuse Entering storm drains
Parasites Climbing trees
Crossing roads Climbing on roofs
Having non-aggressive contact with unfamiliar cats (infectious disease risk) Having contact with wild animals (injury and disease risk)
Consuming solids or liquids left by owners, baits Crawling into car engines

Cats are also prey for wildlife such as coyotes, mountain lions, wolves and raptors, and fights among outdoor cats can also lead to serious injury and infections, including bite abscesses. Sadly, cruel humans also pose a grave risk to cats through gunshots, poisonings, burnings and asphyxia.4

Infectious diseases, several of which are zoonotic (can be spread to humans) commonly sicken and kill outdoor cats, including feline retroviruses, mycoplasmosis, toxoplasmosis, bartonellosis (cat scratch fever), tularemia, plague and rabies, along with worms, ectoparasites and fungal infections.

Best of both worlds: Cats should live indoors and also spend safe, supervised time outdoors

Given the risks associated with living entirely indoors, Scherk believes it should be the goal of veterinarians to encourage people to make indoor living more suitable for cats by decreasing stressful stimuli and enriching and improving the environment.

I certainly agree. I tend to think of cats like humans; we live in protected, safe environments indoors, but enjoy going outside, and spending lots of time outside, in safe environments. Living indoors all the time isn’t what most cats would choose, nor is it an entirely natural environment for them, but it’s by far the safest life we can choose for them. Letting them roam free outdoors some or all of the time presents much more risk.

But just because your kitty lives inside doesn’t mean she can’t go on supervised visits outside to bask in the sun, exercise and ground herself on a daily basis. Outdoor adventures are wonderful for cats, as long as they’re safe.

I recommend walking your cat in nice weather using a harness. This gets him out into the fresh air, stimulates his senses and gets his paws in direct contact with the ground. An alternative is a safe, fully enclosed catio that prevents him from getting out and other animals from getting in. Many cats with catios spend the majority of their days outside, but safe.

Diane tried walking her cat once but the kitty was so scared she had to bring him back inside so this outdoor experience doesn’t always work; however, some cats love it especially in enclosed strollers!

How to provide your cat with an optimal life indoors

  • Enrich the indoor environment — The term “environmental enrichment” means to improve or enhance the living situation of captive animals to optimize their health, longevity and quality of life. The more comfortable your cat feels in your home, the lower her stress level. Reducing stress is extremely important in keeping cats physically healthy.

Enriching your kitty’s surroundings means creating minimally stressful living quarters and reducing or eliminating changes in her life that cause anxiety. Jackson Galaxy has written several books on creating feline environmental enrichment around the house that I highly recommend.

The essentials of your cat’s life — food, water and litterbox (which should be kept scrupulously clean), should be located in a safe, secure location away from any area that is noisy enough to startle her or make her feel trapped and unable to escape. Your cat also needs approved places for climbing and scratching (natural feline behaviors) in her indoor environment, as well as her own resting place and a hiding place where she feels untouchable.

Think about what you can do to appeal to your kitty’s visual, auditory and olfactory senses. For example, some cats can gaze out the window for hours, while others are captivated by fish in an aquarium. Some even enjoy kitty videos.

When you’re away from home, open all your shades and blinds to provide natural light during the day. Provide background noise for kitty similar to the ambient sounds she hears when you’re at home, for example, nature music or a TV at low volume. You can stimulate your cat’s keen sense of smell with cat-safe herbs or synthetic feline pheromones.

  • Make sure he gets daily exercise — Consistent daily exercise, including at least 20 minutes of high-intensity activity will help your cat burn fat and increase muscle tone. Make sure he has things to climb on, like a multilevel cat tree or tower. Think like a cat and choose toys and activities that answer his need for hunting, stalking and pouncing on “prey.” One of Diane’s friends had stairs created going up a wall so the cats could jump from one to another or just sit on them! Ingenious!

Because our cats don’t have the freedom they would in the wild, it’s up to us to give them opportunities to practice those natural instincts. A great way to do that is to have your kitty “hunt” for his food. Try separating his daily portion of freeze-dried raw food into three to five small meals fed throughout the day in a variety of puzzle toys or indoor hunting feeder mice, or load them with a small piece of tasty, dehydrated meat treat.

This will encourage him to “hunt” and eat on a schedule similar to his wild cousins, and as an added bonus, he might just sleep through the night thanks to the puzzle toy you give him at bedtime.

  • Feed a moisture-rich, nutritionally balanced, species-appropriate diet — Offering your cat an optimal diet is the single most important thing you can do to help her have a long, healthy life. That’s why it’s important to understand that some foods are metabolically stressful, for example, all dry (kibble) formulas, processed pet food (canned or dry) containing feed-grade (versus human-grade) ingredients and diets containing grains, potatoes or other starches.

The nutrition that generates the least amount of metabolic stress for most cats, regardless of age, is their ancestral diet: whole, raw (or gently cooked), unprocessed, organic, non-GMO and in its natural form. Animal meat should be the foundation of your kitty’s diet throughout her life. Filtered, pure, fresh water in nontoxic metal or glass (not plastic) bowls is also important.

  • Keep your cat at a healthy weight — Tragically, the majority of cats in the U.S. are overweight or obese. The obesity-related diseases overweight kitties inevitably acquire shorten their lifespans and often destroy their quality of life along the way. If you want your kitty by your side and able to get around comfortably for 20 years, one of the worst things you can do is encourage him to get fat.

The first step in keeping your cat at a healthy weight is to feed an optimal diet as I described above. It’s equally important not to free-feed. It’s also important to calculate kcal (kilocalorie) requirements for your cat’s ideal weight and include treats in his total daily calorie count.

  • Schedule regular veterinary wellness exams — I recommend twice-yearly wellness visits because:

◦Changes in your kitty’s health can happen rapidly, especially on the inside where you can’t see it, like sudden changes in kidney health

◦Sick cats often show no signs of illness, but early detection allows for early intervention

◦Semi-annual visits give you and your veterinarian the opportunity to closely monitor changes in your kitty’s behavior and attitude that require further investigation

At a minimum, younger healthy cats should see the vet once a year. Kitties over the age of 7 and those with chronic health conditions should be seen twice a year or more frequently if necessary. If your cat hates car travel, consider a mobile vet who makes house calls.

I recommend that you find a veterinarian whose practice philosophy you’re comfortable with. This may be a holistic or integrative veterinarian, or a conventional veterinarian who doesn’t aggressively promote vaccines, pest preventives or veterinary drugs at every visit. House call vets can also be a great, lower stress option for indoor kitties.

Generally speaking, if you’re dealing with a conventional vet, you’ll need to advocate for your cat and push back as necessary, politely but firmly. Always remember that you have the final say in what treatments and chemicals are administered to your pet.


Fussy Felines

By Dr. Becker and Diane Weinmann good til the last drop

Even if your own cat is a hearty eater, I’m sure you’re aware that many feline companions are notoriously persnickety at mealtime.

For better or worse, the results of a recent study1 by scientists at the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia may shed some light on why little Percy or Priscilla is so darned fussy about food.

Cats (Meat-Eaters) and Plant-Eating Animals Have Certain Taste Receptors in Common

Cats are obligate carnivores, meaning they must eat meat to survive. Their bodies aren’t designed to process or assimilate large amounts of plant-based nutrition. But as it turns out, despite their strict meat-eating nature, felines have certain significant genes in common with plant-eating herbivores.


The specific genes I’m talking about give herbivores the ability to taste bitter flavors, which helps them avoid eating poisonous plants. Animals use their taste buds to identify certain characteristics of foods they’re about to ingest.

Sweet flavors mean there’s sugar in the food, which is an important source of energy. And it has long been assumed by scientists that a bitter taste warns vegetarian animals that a plant or unripe fruit contains a harmful substance.

Cats have no sweet taste receptors, probably because as strict meat-eaters, they evolved without those receptors since they had no use for them. Other exclusively carnivorous animals, e.g., sea lions and spotted hyenas, have also lost the ability to taste sweet flavors. Having learned this I cannot understand why my cat, Milo, absolutely adored whipped cream! He would hear the can, no matter where he was in the house, and would come running!

Cats (Carnivores) Are Equipped with Several Bitter Taste Receptors That Detect Toxins in Plants. The Question Is, Why?

Animals’ taste buds evolve in response to changing dietary requirements. Over time, alterations in an animal’s normal diet can eliminate the need to sense certain chemicals in food, which causes the genes to mutate in response.

A good example of this is cats, which as strict meat-eaters have evolved without the ability to taste sweet flavors. But here’s a question: If the ability to taste bitterness is nature’s way of alerting vegetarian animals to potentially toxic plants, why do strictly meat-eating cats have a need to taste bitter flavors?

In theory, if cats have evolved with no ability to taste bitterness, their receptor genes should be mutated accordingly. However, when the Monell scientists looked at the genomes of different carnivorous species, they learned they all possess a similar amount of genes for bitter taste.

For example, cats have 12 identified bitter taste receptors, polar bears have 13, ferrets have 14, dogs have 15, and the giant panda has 16. All these animals belong to the order Carnivora, however, in terms of their diets, they range from strictly carnivorous (cats) to exclusively vegetarian (giant panda).


So the question becomes: If primarily meat-eating animals aren’t likely to sample any bitter or potentially toxic plant-based food sources, why are they genetically equipped to taste bitter flavors?

Cats’ Bitter Taste Receptors May Help Them Detect Toxic Compounds in Their Prey

Lead study author and molecular biologist Peihua Jiang set out to evaluate feline taste buds. He did this in the laboratory by inserting the cat taste receptor gene into human tissue cells. Together, the cells and the gene behave as a taste receptor that responds to chemicals.

The taste receptor created by Jiang responded to bitter substances in toxic plants, as well as to substances that also activate human bitter taste receptors.

The researchers determined feline bitter taste receptors help them detect potential toxins in the prey they hunt in the wild, including frogs and toads. According to study author Gary Beauchamp, Ph.D., a behavioral biologist at Monell:

” … [B]itter taste could exist to minimize intake of toxic compounds from skin and other components of certain prey species, such as invertebrates, reptiles and amphibians.”

Could Bitter Taste Receptors Help Detect Infections in Cats?

The researchers suggest that cats aren’t exposed often enough to bitter and toxic meat-based foods to warrant the number of bitter taste receptors they have retained. Let’s face it– you have probably all seen the pretty blue frogs at the zoo that are highly poisonous, right? They are not present in the U.S.A. so why would a pet owner worry? The study authors conclude that cat taste receptors may have evolved for reasons other than taste. Interestingly, human bitter taste receptors are found not only in the mouth, but in the heart and lungs as well, and may serve to detect infections.

“Alternate physiological roles for bitter receptors may be an important driving force molding bitter receptor number and function,” says Beauchamp.

“For example, recent Monell-related findings show that bitter receptors also are involved in protecting us against internal toxins, including bacteria related to respiratory diseases.”

Whether this is also the case with kitties remains to be seen.

Feline Foodies?

Based on this new discovery that our feline companions have taste buds for bitter flavors, it could be they pick up subtle noxious tastes in the food we offer them.

This would explain why many cats are so food finicky … except that dogs have a similar number of bitter taste receptors and many have never met a meal they didn’t like. However, there are quite a few fussy dog eaters- I have one and he is a husky!

Perhaps cats are simply more sensitive to bitter substances than dogs, or are able to detect many more bitter compounds in their food than dogs are. It’s possible ingredients that are essentially tasteless to your dog taste just plain nasty to your cat … which would certainly explain why so many kitties are so selective when it comes to the food they will eat.

Tips for Encouraging a Fussy Cat to Eat

According to Dr. Becker, her first recommendation is to try to slowly and safely transition a cat eating processed pet food to a balanced, fresh, organic, non-GMO, species-appropriate diet. Unless your cat is hopelessly addicted to the processed stuff, offering fresh whole food with no additives or preservatives essentially eliminates the possibility her delicate tastebuds will detect noxious chemical compounds in her meal.


Whether her diet is fresh or processed, however, the goal should always be to make sure your cat eats something. Unlike dogs and humans, it’s dangerous for kitties to go any length of time without nourishment, as it can lead to a potentially fatal liver disease called hepatic lipidosis.


Enticing a picky kitty to stay nourished can require creativity along with some gentle prodding, and lots of patience. Things you can do to tempt your finicky feline’s sensitive tastebuds include:

  • Warming her food to bring out the aroma
  • Offering canned food with a strong smell or topped with a sardine or tuna (packed in water)
  • Offering new food from a paper plate in case she’s developed an aversion to her food bowl for some reason
  • Offering a small selection of different flavors and textures of canned cat food or home cooked meat or bone broth
  • Enticing her with species-appropriate human food she has enjoyed in the past, such as warm baked chicken or salmon
  • If she’s addicted to dry food and refuses everything else, try adding warm water to each meal or add an aromatic enticement like tuna juice, warm goat’s milk, or chicken brothIf all else fails you kitty may have an emotional or physical issue going on. I always recommend that you take your pet to the vet and have them determine if anything is physically amiss before assuming the problem is emotional. If you have done that, they please contact me to talk with your pet and allow me to recommend a treatment of blended bach flower essences that will target the heart of the emotional problems your pet is experiencing.
  • Let me give you an example: my cat refused to eat and lost a bunch of weight. I knew in my heart he was mad because I brought a dog into the house to live without consulting him (he would have said no anyway because he always wanted to be the only pet). The dog had no where to go and he belonged to my son who lives with us. So while I was on vacation the dog moved in—hence the cat decided to punish us! I took him to the vet and many hundreds of dollars later determined nothing was physically wrong with him. Did I call that or what? So I made a special treatment bottle of a blend of bach flower essences to help him emotionally deal with a new pet in the home. Within three weeks he was back to normal and gaining weight. Problem solved!
  • It’s also important to make kitty’s mealtime a very low-stress, pleasant experience. Make sure you feed her in a calm, quiet environment that is optimally comfortable.